2016 Volume 3 Issue 1

Fluctuating asymmetry as an Indicator of Ecological Stress in Rhinocypha colorata (Odonata: Chlorocyphidae) in Iligan City, Mindanao, Philippines

Cherry Mae M. Yuto, Leonel Lumogdang, Sharon Rose M. Tabugo

Odonata species are known to be successful biological indicators because they are particularly sensitive to human disturbances due to their habitat selection which makes them vulnerable to changes. A useful trait to monitor developmental instability (DI) and ecological stress is fluctuating asymmetry (FA), which is a measure of the differences between the left and right side of bilateral symmetrical organisms. It refers to a slight number and nondirectional deviations from strict bilateral symmetry of biological objects that occur as a result of stochastic microscopic processes. In this study, fore-wing variation of Rhinocypha colorata, a Philippine endemic species was investigated. It assessed developmental stability via fluctuating asymmetry in the fore- wings of R. colorata, in three populations from three areas: Buruun, Ditucalan, Dalipuga, Iligan City, Mindanao, Philippines. Analysis was based on Procrustes method that makes comparison of FA indices of homologous points. Using landmark method for shape asymmetry, anatomical landmarks were used and analyzed using Symmetry and Asymmetry in Geometric Data (SAGE) program. Twenty landmarks on the fore-wings were tested on samples for all populations. Results obtained showed variation and significantly high FA for all populations with relatively higher FA for Dalipuga. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that barangay Dalipuga exhibited more variations (74.93%) than that of Ditucalan (72.19%) and Buru-un (67.97%). Possible reasons behind high FA values were anthropogenic activities in the area. FA has been considered as a good indicator of DI and thus acts as a biomarker for environmental stress. Hence, results may reflect inability of the organism to cope with stressing factors and any perturbations during development. Herewith, understanding the relationship between the species and its environment would help determine the health of a given ecosystem. Nonetheless, Odonata, as bioindicator species, can play an important role for biomonitoring purposes.

Keywords: Fluctuating Asymmetry, Biological indicator, Odonata, Procrustes ANOVA, SAGE


T.E. Kutcher, J.T. Bried, Ecological Indicators, 2014, 38,1, 31-39

J.C. Sifneos, A.T. Herlihy, A.D. Jacobs, M.E. Kentula, Wetlands, 2010, 30, 6, 1011–1022

K. Domsic, Odonata, 2009, 1, 1, 1-14

A. Remsburg, A. Olson, M. Samways, Insect Behavior, 2008, 21,6, 460–468

J.T. Bried, G.N. Ervin, Southeastern Naturalist, 2005, 4, 4, 731-744

H.H. McAdams, A. Arkin, Trends in Genetics, 1999, 15, 2, 65-69

P.A. Parsons, Biological Reviews, 1990, 65, 2, 131–145

A.R. Palmer, BioScience, 1996, 46, 1, 518-532

G.M. Clarke, L.J. McKenzie, Journal of Economical Entomology, 1992, 85, 6, 2045-2050

G.M. Clarke, Conservation Biology, 1995, 9, 1, 18-24

J. Cairns, P.V. McCornick, B.R. Niederlehner, Hydrobiologia, 1993, 263,1, 1-44

L. Lens, V.S. Dongen, S. Kark, E. Matthysen, Biological Reviews, 2002, 77, 1, 27-38

A.C. Palmer, C. Strobeck, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 1986, 17, 1, 391-421

Palmer, R.A. Fluctuating asymmetry analysis: a primer. In: Developmental Instability: Its Origins and Evolutionary Implications. Kluwer Academic, London, 1994, pp. 335–364

E.C.R. Reeve, Genetical Research, 1960, 1, 1, 151-172

D.J. Hosken, W.U. Blanckenhorn, P.I. Ward, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 2000, 13, 6, 919-926

Moller, A. and Swaddle, J.P. Asymmetry, Developmental Stability and Evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, 1997, pp. 1-240

R.J.T. TVillanueva, International Dragonfly Fund-Report, 2011, 38, 1, 1-29

D.A. Lamptey, R. Kyerematen, E.O. Owusu, International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 2013, 5, 11, 761-769

Mayr, E. Animal species and evolution. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 1963, pp. 797-798

Ricklefs, R.E. and Miles, D.B. Ecological and evolutionary inferences from morphology: an ecological perspective. In: Ecological morphology: integrative organismal biology. University Chicago Press, Chicago, 1994, pp. 13-41

M.A. McPeek, Ecology, 1990, 71, 1, 1714-1726

Bookstein, F.L. Morphometric tools for landmark data. In: geometry and biology. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, New York, 1991, pp. 197-227

Dryden, I.L. and Mardia, K.V. Statistical Shape Analysis. In: Comprehensive book on statistical analysis of shape data. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., New York, 1998, pp. 306-307

Marquez, E. Sage: symmetry and asymmetry in geometric data. Ver. 1.04. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Michigan, 2006, pp. 1-7

Palmer, A.R. and Strobeck, C. Fluctuating asymmetry analyses revisited. In: Developmental Instability: causes and consequences. University Press, New York, USA, 2003, pp. 279-280

A.L. Albarrán-Lara, L. Mendoza-Cuenca, S. Valencia-Ávalos, A. González-Rodríguez, K. Oyama, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 2010,171, 3, 310-322

J.H. Graham, D.C. Freeman, J.C. Emlem, Genetics, 1993, 89, 1, 173-293

L.Van Valen, Evolution, 1962, 16, 1, 1-7

S.W. Gangestad, R. Thornhill, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 1999, 12, 1, 402–416

K. R. Galbo, S. R. M. Tabugo, AACL Bioflux, 2014, 7, 5, 357-364

S. Sadeghi, D. Adriaens, H.J. Dumont, Odonatologica, 2009, 38, 4, 343-360

N. Bonada, S. Vives, M. Rieradevall, N. Prat, Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 2005,162, 2, 167-185

R.F. Leary, F.W. Allendorf, Trends Ecology and Evolution, 1989, 4, 7, 214–217

J.A. Kieser, H.T. Groeneveld, Evolution, 1991, 45, 1, 1175-1183

A.R. Palmer, C. Strobeck, Acta Zoologica Fennica, 1992, 191, 1, 57-72

P.A. Parsons, Heredity, 1992, 68, 1, 361–364

G.M. Clarke, Environmental Pollution, 1993, 82, 1, 207–211

L. Lens, V.S. Dongen, C.M. Wilder, T.M. Brooks, E. Matthysen, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences, 1999, 266, 1425, 1241-1246

P. Utayopas, Thammasat International Journal of Science and Technology, 2001, 6, 2, 10-20

M. Mpho, G.J. Holloway, A. Callaghan, Bulletin of Entomological Research, 2000, 90, 3, 279-283

S.R. Tabugo, P.A. Casas, M.T. Pareño, M.A. Peñaredondo, Advances in Environmental Biology, 2015, 9, 19, 10-17

D Beasley. PhD Thesis, University of South Carolina (Columbia, South Carolina, USA, 2002)

Entomology and Applied Science Letters is an international peer reviewed publication which publishes scientific research & review articles related to insects that contain information of interest to a wider audience, e.g. papers bearing on the theoretical, genetic, agricultural, medical and biodiversity issues. Emphasis is also placed on the selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance. Papers on non-insect groups are no longer accepted. In addition to full-length research articles and reviews, the journal publishes interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, and Letters to the Editor. The journal publishes reports on all phases of medical entomology and medical acarology, including the systematics and biology of insects, acarines, and other arthropods of public health and veterinary significance.
Issue 2 Volume 7 - 2020
Call for Papers
Entomology and Applied Science Letters supports the submission of entomological papers that contain information of interest to a wider reader groups e. g. papers bearing on taxonomy, phylogeny, biodiversity, ecology, systematic, agriculture, morphology. The selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance is also important. Distinguished entomologists drawn from different parts of the world serve as honorary members of the Editorial Board. The journal encompasses all the varied aspects of entomological research. This has become the need felt in scientific research due to the emphasis on intra-, inter-, and multi-disciplinary approach.