2016 Volume 3 Issue 3

Determination of metabolic profiles at pre partum and postpartum stages in fresian x bunaji and bunaji cows

Ibe C. C., Uchechukwu N. V. S., Rekwot P. I.

A study of the metabolic profile reflecting metabolic energy status prior to artificial insemination, during the different trimesters of pregnancy and at postpartum period (PP), in Friesian x Bunaji (FR x BJ) and Bunaji (BJ) cows, placed on the same feeding regimen was conducted. Twenty eight cows comprising of 11 FR x BJ and 17 BJ were observed for normal cyclicity. Only 8 cows (4 FR x BJ and 4 BJ) that showed normal cyclicity were used for the study. They where synchronized using a single intramuscular injection of 25 mg of PGF2α and inseminated using Friesian semen. Blood samples were obtained every morning before feeding during pre–insemination, pregnancy and PP at 30 days interval. The samples obtained were processed for serum and assayed for metabolites and electrolytes. The pre–insemination (control) values (range) for metabolic parameters for both breeds were glucose
(GL) (2.17 ± 0.44 – 2.29 ± 0.32 mMol/L), triglycerides (TRG) (0.61 ± 0.07 – 0.74 ± 0.08 mMol/L), cholesterol (CHL) (4.85 ± 0.77 – 5.15 ± 0.58 mMol/L), urea (UR) (7.41 ± 0.97 – 10.46 ± 2.68 mMol/L), creatinine (CRT) (188.68 ± 15.32 – 135.13 ± 23.05 mMol/L), sodium (Na+) (152.38 ± 7.43 – 152.75 ± 5.53 mMol/L), potassium (K+) (4.30 ± 0.29 – 4.31 ± 0.29 mMol/L) chloride (Cl–) (103.38 ± 5.16 – 106.25 ± 3.69 mMol/L), bicarbonate (HCO3 2–) (17.23 ± 2.72 – 23.00 ± 2.49 mMol/L), total protein (TP) (55.19 ± 5.16 – 59.54 ± 6.05 g/l) and albumin (ALB) (27.69 ± 3.10 – 29.02 ± 5.27 g/l). There was increase in GL, TRG, CHL, HCO3 2–, Ca2+, TP, and ALB levels in the two breeds, with onset of pregnancy when compared to the control, but CRT, UR, Na+, K+, and Cl– levels decreased with onset of pregnancy. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the levels of GL, UR, CHL, Na+, K+, HCO3\ 2–, Ca2+, TP and ALB between the two breeds, throughout the reproductive stages. However, significant differences were obtained in other metabolic parameters between the breeds at different reproductive stages. This research has provided a baseline data on metabolic parameters of FR x BJ and BJ cows prior to insemination, during the different trimesters of pregnancy and at postpartum period, which are considered valuable in future clinical and experimental applications.


Keywords: Bunaji, Fresian x Bunaji, metabolic profile.


K.L. Ingvartsen, J.B. Andersen, Journal of Dairy Science,2000, 83: 1573-1597.

D.C. Piao, T. Wang, J.S. Lee, R.S.A.Vega, S.K. Kang, J.C. Yun, H.G. Lee, J. AnimSciBiotechnol. 2015, 6(1), 9.

E. Balıkcı, A. Yıldız, F. Gürdoğan, Small Ruminant Research, 2007, 67, 247-251.

M.C. Loiselle, C. Ster, B.G. Talbot, X. Zhao, G.F. Wagner, Y.R. Boisclair, P. Lacasse, Journal of Dairy Science, 2008, 92, 1900-1912.

G.N. Akpa, J.O. Ifut, F. Mohammed, J Anim Prod, 2002, 29, 264-270.

F.O. Abeke, A.A. Sekoni, O.O. Oni, I.A. Adeyinka, B.I. Nwagu, Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension, 2008, 7, 223-228.

O.O. Oni, B.Y. Abubakar, S.O. Ogundipe, Nig J Anim Prod, 1991,18, 66-69.

P.I. Rekwot, D. Ogwu, E.O. Oyedipe, AnimReprodSci, 2000, 63, 1-11.

R. Djoković, H. Šamanc, J. Bojkovski, N. Fratrić, LucrariStiinłificeMedicinaVeterinara, 2010, 43: 34-40.

M. Karapehlivan, E. Atakisi, O. Atakisi, R. Yucayurt, S.M. Pancarci, Small Ruminant Research, 2007, 73, 267-271.

A. Busato, D. Faissler, U. Küpfer, J. W. Blum, J Vet Med,2002, 49:455-460.

M.D. Reist, D. Erdin, K. von Euw, H.Tschuemperlin, Y. Leuenberger, M. Chilliard, C. Hammon, C. Morel, Y.

Philipona, N.K. Zbinden, J.W. Blum, Journal of Dairy Science, 2002, 85, 3314-3327.

T.R. Overton, M.R.Waldron, Journal of Dairy Science, 2004, 87, 105-119.

National Research Council. Nutrient requirement of dairy cattle, 7th ed., National Academy of Science, Washington, DC, 2001.

T. Komatsu, F. Itoh, S. Kushibiki, K. Hodate, Journal of Animal Science, 2005, 83, 557-564.

M.M.A.El-Sherif, F. Assad, Small Ruminant Research, 2001, 40, 269-277.

T.R. Regnault, H.V. Oddy, C. Nancarrow, N. Sriskandarajah, R.J. Scaramuzzi, Reprod Biol Endocrinol, 2004, 2, 64.

K.L. Ingvartsen, Anim Feed Sci Tech, 2006, 126: 175-213.

D.E. Grum, J. K. Drackley, J. H. Clark, Journal of Dairy Science, 2002, 85, 3026-3034.

G. Piccione, G. Caola, C. Giannetto, F. Grasso, S. Calanni Runzo, A. Zumbo, P. Pennisi, Animal Science Papers and Reports, 2009, 27, 321-330.

H.M. Dann, N.B. Litherland, J.P. Underwood, M. Bionaz, A. D’Angelo, J.W. McFadden, J.K. Drackley, Journal of Dairy Science, 2006, 89, 3563-3577.

F.H.D. Gonzalez, J.A.R.D. Rocha, Arq. Faculty Veterinaria da Federal University of Rio Grande doSul, 1998, 26, 52-64.

Z. Antunovic, D. Sencic, M. Speranda, B. Liker, Small Ruminant Research, 2002, 45, 39-44.

H. Brozostowski, S. Milewski, A. Wasilewska, Z. Tanski, Archivum Veterinarium Polonicum, 1996, 35, 53-62.

B. Yokus, D.U. Cakir, Z. Kanay, T. Gulten, E. Uysal, J Vet Med, 2006, 53, 271-276.

W. Bruce, M. D. Nugent, 2005, 23: 629-648.

G. Piccione, V. Messina, S. Marafioti, S. Casella, C. Giannetto, C. F. Fazio, Veterinarija ir Zootechnika, 2012, 58, 59-64.

N.Roubies, N. Panouis, A. Fytianou, P.D. Katsoulos, N. Giadinis, H. Karatzias, J Vet Med, 2006, 53, 277-281.

M. Mohri, K. Sharifi, S. Eidi, Research in Veterinary Science, 2007, 83, 30-39.

D.G. Fox, C.J. Sniffen, J.D. O’Connor, J.B. Russell, P.J. Van Soest, J Anim Sci, 1992, 70, 3578-3596.

Jainudeen, M.R. and Hafez, E.S.E. Gestation, prenatal physiology and parturition. In: Reproduction in Farm

Animals, Lea and Febiger Press, Philadelphia, 1994, pp 247-283.

Everts, H. Nitrogen intake and metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. In: The Lactating Sow, Wageningen

University Press, The Netherlands, 1994, pp. 201-219.

I.U. Ate, Ph.D Thesis. Ahmadu Bello University, (Zaria, Nigeria, 2005).

M.E. Azab, H.A. Abdel-Maksoud, Small Ruminant Research, 1999, 34, 77-85.

Kaneko, J.J, Harvey, J.W. and Bruss, M.L. Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals, 5th ed. Academic Press, San Diego, California, 1997, pp 409-471.

I.U. Ate, P.I. Rekwot, A.J. Nok, L.B. Tekdek, African J Biomed Res, 2009, 12 (2), 25 - 30.

F.A. Martz, A.T. Belo, M.F.Weiss, R.L. Belyea, J.P. Goff, Journal of Dairy Science, 1990, 73, 1288-1295.

J.A. Adeneye, Nig J Anim Prod, 1989, 16,8-15.

Entomology and Applied Science Letters is an international peer reviewed publication which publishes scientific research & review articles related to insects that contain information of interest to a wider audience, e.g. papers bearing on the theoretical, genetic, agricultural, medical and biodiversity issues. Emphasis is also placed on the selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance. Papers on non-insect groups are no longer accepted. In addition to full-length research articles and reviews, the journal publishes interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, and Letters to the Editor. The journal publishes reports on all phases of medical entomology and medical acarology, including the systematics and biology of insects, acarines, and other arthropods of public health and veterinary significance.
Issue 3 Volume 7 - 2020
Call for Papers
Entomology and Applied Science Letters supports the submission of entomological papers that contain information of interest to a wider reader groups e. g. papers bearing on taxonomy, phylogeny, biodiversity, ecology, systematic, agriculture, morphology. The selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance is also important. Distinguished entomologists drawn from different parts of the world serve as honorary members of the Editorial Board. The journal encompasses all the varied aspects of entomological research. This has become the need felt in scientific research due to the emphasis on intra-, inter-, and multi-disciplinary approach.