Chironomid bio-ecology in an anthropisized aquatic ecosystem in Yaounde (Cameroon):community diversity and relationship with the environmental variables of the water system

Ajeagah Gideon Aghaindum, Enah Dickson Achuo, Foto Menbohan S


In this study, the Olezoa stream in Yaounde was assessed from November 2013 to May 2014 to identify the chironomid genera that are present in the water system, determine the physicochemical properties of the water, and describe the relationships between species composition of chironomid communities and environmental parameters. Samplings were carried out on monthly basis at three different stations of the hydrosystem.The results showed that, Olezoa stream is slightly acidic (6.8 ± 0.2 CU), moderately mineralized (312.8 ± 95.4 μS/cm), rich in organic matter and less oxygenized (1.8 ± 1.3 mg/L) and rich in suspended solids (247.4 ± 172.4mg/L). The low values obtained for most physicochemical quality of the aquatic ecosystem justifies the high biodiversity of the Chironomidaecommunity suggest their degree of tolerance and sensitivity to aquatic pollution. This is due to the fact that the chironomidae developmental stages exhibit a variety of adaptations in polluted areas which could be: morphological, physiological and behavioral, occurring simultaneously within each developmental form and the different genera. The relationship between the dynamics of the different genera and the physicochemical variable were confirmed by the Spearman correlation index. This indicated a positive correlation between the distribution of chironomid genera and some environmental variables such as Turbidity (r= -0.517 p<0.05), Suspended solids (r= 0.490, p<0.05) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) (r =-0.555, p=0.05) revealing their ecological impetus in the biological management of aquatic ecosystems.


Key words: Chironomid,Olezoa stream, pupalexuviae,Larva instars, aquatic pollution.

Full Text:



B.Gilles,Océan de vies. La biodiversité, Océanopolis Brest. 2010,11p.

L.Ferrington, Global diversity of non-biting midges (Chironomidae; Insecta-Diptera) in freshwater.Hydrobiologia,2007,595:447-455.

L.C. Ferrington, M.A. Blackwood,C.A. Wright, N.H. Crisp, J.L. Kavanaugh and F.J. Schmidt,A protocol for using surface-floating pupalexuviae of Chironomidae for rapidbioassessment of changing water quality. In: Peters NE & Walling DE (eds.)Sediment and stream water quality in a changing environment: trends and

explanation.International Association of Hydrological Sciences,1991,203: 181-190.

P. Krantzfelder, 2012. Identification guide and key to the chironomid pupa exuviae of Toutuguere National Park

Coasta Rica. Part 1. 2012 ,90p.

G. Lacroix and M. Danger, Des réseaux trophiques au fonctionnement des écosystèmes Lacustres vers une

intégration de l’hétérogénéité et de la complexité, Revue des Sciences d’eau,2008,21(2):155-172.

T. Heatherly, M.R. Whiles., T.V Royer and M.B. David, M.B. Relationships between water quality, habitat quality, and macroinvertebrate assemblages in Illinois streams. Journal ofEnvironmental Quality.2007,36:1653-1660.

R. Thorne, R. and P. Williams, The response of benthic macroinvertebrates to pollution in developing countries: a

multimetric system of bioassessment. FreshwaterBiology,1997, 37:671-686.

W. Bouchard. Draft guide to aquatic Invertebrates families of Mongolia.2009

P.D. Armitage, P.S.Cranston, P.S. and L.C.V.Pinder. The Chironomidae : biology and ecology of non-biting

midges. Chapman & Hall, London; New York, NY 572p.1995.

FotoMenhoban, S., Koji, E., Ajeagah Gideon, A., ZebazeTouguet, S.H., BilongBilong C.F., andNjine, T.,.

Impact of dam construction on the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates community in a periurban stream in

Cameroon. International journalofBioscience 2012,2(11) : 137-145.

G.A. Ajeagah, J.F. Bikitbe and F. Longo, F. Qualité bioécologique d’un milieu lacustre hyper-eutrophisé en

zone équatoriale (Afrique Centrale) : peuplement de protozoaires ciliés et macro invertébrés bentho-aquatiques. AfriqueScience .2013,9(2):50-66.

INC. Carte topographique de la région de Yaoundé au 1/10000. Yaoundé Institut National de Cartographie 4 feuilles.2008

APHA, AWWA WEF,. Standard method for examination of water and wastewater 20th edition, American Public Health Association WashingtonD.C.1998, 1150p.

J.Rodier. L’analyse de l’eau 9e éd., Dunod, Paris, 20091526p.

S. Nandi, G. Aditya, K. Goutam and Saha.Nutrient condition and ChironomidAssemblege in Kolkata, India : assessment for boiomonitoring and Ecological monitoring.Journal ofEnvironmental Quality.2012,36:1653-1660.

J.S.Olafsson,. A comparative study on the mouth part morphology of certain larvae of chironomini (Dipteria

:chironomidae), north reference to the larva feeding habits. Journal of Zoology, London, 1992 ,228:183-204.

F. Ramade . Eléments d’écologie: écologie fondamentale 3eéd. Dunod, Paris, 2003,190p.

F.Reiss,.DieinstehendengewâssenderNeutropisVerbreitetechironomidengattunggeeldichironomusFittkau (Diptera insect). Studies on Neutropical Fauna, 1974 9: 85-122.

Reiss, F., Vie neueChironomus. Arten (Chironomidae, Diptera) Benthosfaunazentralamazoinscherseen undüerschwemmungswalder. Undihreökologische Bedeutungfür die Amazoniana 1974,5: 3-23

R. Dajoz, Précis d’écologie 8eed., Dunod, Paris,2006, 630p.

MCBrisbois., R. Jamieson., G. Gordon, A. Stratton, and A.Madani.,. Stream ecosystem health in rural mixed

land-use watersheds. Journal of Environmental Engineering&Science2008,7(6) :439-452.

W. Meng.,N Zhang, Y. Zhang, and B. Zheng, B., . Integrated assessment of river health based on water quality, aquatic life and physical habitat. Journal of Environmental Sciences,2009 , 21:1017-1027

J.Raunio, The use of chironomidpupalexuviae technique (PET). In fresh water Biomonitoring: applications for Boreal rivers and lake. A scientiae RerumNaturalium2008,500.46p.

H.J. Epler. Identification manual for the larva of chironomidae (Dipterians) of north and south Carolina department of environment and Naturals resources,2001, 7:1-16.

L.C. Pinder. The habitats of chironomid larva (in the chironomidae the biology and Ecology of non biting midges Eds : P. Armitage P. S. Cranston L. C. V. pinder). Chapman and Hall London, 1995 ,107-135

G. Lacroix, et M. Danger. Des réseaux trophiques au fonctionnement des écosystèmes lacustres vers une intégration de l’hétérogénéité et de la complexité. Revue des sciences d’eau.2008, 21(2):155-172

K.P. Brodersen andN.J. Anderson,. Distribution of chironomids (Diptera) in low arctic West Greenland lakes: trophic conditions, temperature and environmental reconstruction. Freshwater Biology, 2002, 47(6), 1137-57.

P.H.Langton. The pupal and events leading to eclosion (In Chironomidae. The biology and ecology of non biting midges, Eds; P. Armitage, P.S Cranston, L.C.V Pinder) – Chapman and hall, London,1995. 169- 193.

Helson, J., Williams, D. and Turner, D., 2006. Larval chironomid community organization in four tropical rivers: human impacts and longitudinal zonation.Hydrobiologia, 2006,559:413-431.

P. Kleine, P., and S. Trivinho Strixino, 2005. Chironomidae and other aquatic macroinvertebrates of a first order stream: community response after habitat fragmentation. Acta LimnologicaBrasiliensia. 2005,17:81-90. ²



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Entomology and Applied Science Letters

<Entomology+Zoology+Allied Branches>Entomology and Applied Science Letters