The Influence of Biomodified Fertilizers on the Productivity of Crops and Biological Properties of Soddy-Podzolic Soils

Naliukhin A.N., Glinushkin A.P., Khamitova S.M., Avdeev Yu.M.

Abstract


The problem of preserving the ecological balance of agrocenoses while using mineral fertilizers is one of the most important in modern agriculture. The use of new types of organomineral fertilizers (OMF), the pellets of which are modified by various types of biopreparations (BP), is one of the ways to solve it. The studies were conducted in 2013-2017 on the experimental field of the Vologda State Dairy Farming Academy by N.V. Vereshchagin (Russia, Molochnoe). In the field experiments, the spore forms of the rhizosphere bacteria Bacillus subtilis Ch-13 (biopreparation BisolbiFit), Bacillus mucilaginosus (Phosphatovit), and the consortium based on these two strains (phosphoActiv) were used as modifiers of OMF. The first experiment consisted of four variants: (1) control (without fertilizers), (2) BP BisolbiFit, (3) OMF, (4) OMF + BP BisolbiFit (on spring wheat and flax); the second experiment consisted of six variants: (1) control (without fertilizers), (2) NPK, (3) OMF, (4) OMF + BP BisolbiFit, (5) OMF + BP Phosphatovit, (6) OMF + BP phosphoActiv with pHKCl 5.1 - 5.2 and 5.8 – 6.0 (vetch-oat mixture). The method of high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene with real-time detection was used to study the effect of fertilizers on the taxonomic structure of the prokaryotic community of sod-podzolic sandy loam soil (Albic Retisol (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Differentic, Ochric)). Results: The biological modification of pellets of organomineral fertilizers by biopreparation BisolbiFit contributed to the growth of the yield of flax straw by 5.3%, wheat grain - by 5.1%, green weight of the vetch-oat mixture by 10.6%. The greatest amount of bacterial DNA was observed in variants with the addition of OMF on the background of liming (modifier - BisolbiFit). In control and NPK variants (without liming), the number of bacteria was the smallest. Distribution of the bacterial community at the level of phyla showed that the greatest proportion of Actinobacteria (more than 20%) was noted in variants with the introduction of OMF and OMF + BisolbiFit. This indicates that the use of organomineral fertilizers positively affects their development. 1)The biological modification of pellets of organomineral fertilizers by the spore forms of rhizosphere bacteria Bacillus subtilis Ch-13 and Bacillus mucilaginosus contributed to the growth of the yield of flax by 5.3% (flax straw), wheat grain - by 5.1%, green weight of the vetch-oat mixture by 10.6%. 2)The results of the work indicate a close relationship of the taxonomic structure of the soil microbocenosis with the liming and application of fertilizers. 3)Based on the analysis of the metagenome of the prokaryotic community, it is possible to evaluate "soil health" when introducing various types of fertilizers.


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URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0000easl.v5i3.2479

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<Entomology+Zoology+Allied Branches>Entomology and Applied Science Letters