Mosquito Diversity and Public Services as Risk Factors for Emerging Diseases in a Small Village, Ecuador Amazon

Ana-Belén Ortega, Paúl Duque, Jonathan Liria, Jazzmin Arrivillaga-Henríquez, José Salazar, Elena Burgaleta Burgaleta, Juan-Carlos Navarro

Abstract


The creation and/or extension of urbanisms towards jungle areas, deficiencies in public services, tourism, hunting practices and exploitation of natural resources have been important factors that influenced the epidemic outbreaks of arboviruses in the Amazon. Limoncocha is a small population of the Kichwa ethnic group created in the 1950's by the Linguistic Summer Institute, with a current population of about 1,500 inhabitants, immersed in the Biological Reserve of Limoncocha, RAMSAR (1998). A systematic, stratified and random sampling of 80% of the total inhabited houses (65 dwellings) was carried out, using entomological sampling and surveys on socio-environmental factors. A direct relationship between the deficiency of public services and the breeding of urban and jungle vectors was found, this allowed estimating the vulnerability and risk factors present for the local transmission of arboviruses in the community. The analysis suggested that the population had the permanent water for consumption through different routes, but only 8% of homes had the potable water pipe system, and half of these households had daily interruptions in their supply. 90% stored water collected from rivers and streams, in useful containers of low volumes, such as buckets and face-washers, from tankers, cisterns, and wells. A third of the homes (25%) did not have a waste collection service, 40% of the ones with the service, did not remove the inorganic ones, which represented 60% of the positive recipients for mosquitoes. The index of the positive containers per household was low (0.5, max = 4, min = 0). The breeding pattern was determined by the waste containers with mainly sylvan species. The low aedic index (1.5%), suggested a low colonization by Aedes aegypti in the locality, and that the cases of Dengue/Chikungunya reported were not of the local transmission, having the greatest vulnerability, and the possible translocation of sylvatic pathogens from the biological reserves by sylvatic vectors through the ecotone-periphery-center of the village gradient.


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URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0000easl.v5i3.2694

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Copyright (c) 2018 Ana-Belén Ortega, Paúl Duque, Jonathan Liria, Jazzmin Arrivillaga-Henríquez, José Salazar, Elena Burgaleta Burgaleta, Juan-Carlos Navarro

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<Entomology+Zoology+Allied Branches>Entomology and Applied Science Letters