Neglected Tropical Disease of Rift Valley Fever and Its Impact on Hu-man, and Animal Health with Emphasis on Iran: A Review Article

Hamid Kassiri, Rouhullah Dehghani, Maral Kasiri, Mousa Dehghani

Abstract


Introduction and Objectives: Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is an acute viral hemorrhagic zoonotic disease that is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites or contact with infected livestock. The primary RVF vectors are Aedes species. Other mosquitoes such as Culex, Anopheles and Mansonia are considered secondary vectors. RVF is important from a public health and economic perspectives. Africa and the Middle East have been identified as a primary foci for RVF. Neighboring Iran, Saudi Arabia is one of the endemic foci for the RVF. According to a recent report pointing to RVF incidents observed among ruminants in Kurdistan Province, Iran, this study was conducted to evaluate the status of this disease and its possible occurrence in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, the websites of reputable medicine and health journals, as well as scientific databases were searched to find relevant articles using many keywords. Out of 111 articles, finally, 77 cases were selected and analyzed according to the aim of the study or RVF status in Iran. Results: In 2016, the first RVF positive serological report in animals in Iran was carried out in Kurdistan Province, indicating the risk of animal exposure to the virus. According to the observation of RVF cases in animals, the risk of human RVF cases in Iran has also increased. Annual travels of people to neighboring countries increase the probability of the RVF virus entering to Iranian society. Conclusions: Given the geographical location and proximity to the foci of primary disease, the risk of RVF endemicity in Iran is extremely high. Every year, a large number of people travel back and forth between Saudi Arabia (an active disease hotspot) and Iran, and large quantities of meat and livestock are exported from Saudi Arabia to Iran. In light of the specified issues and positive serological report of RVF in cattle and sheep in Iran, the necessity of careful supervision, planning, and monitoring to prevent the entry of human cases to the country or spreading the disease becomes apparent.


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URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0000easl.v7i1.3306

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