Creative Commons License 2014 Volume 1 Issue 2

The Importance and Management Option of Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (L.) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Ethiopia: A Review

Tadele Shiberu, Amin Mohammed

Thrips attack a number of vegetable crops particularly onion thrips causing considerable economic damage on onion crops. Usually young leaves are preferred, but buds and flowers also get infested. Under severe infested conditions the leaves shed and hence plant growth is affected and their control is vital to the production and profitability of onion crop. Most onion fields need protection against onion thrips for two to three months depends on the varieties. If onion thrips are not controlled, damage can routinely reduce bulb yields. In addition to use integrated pest management, use of selective insecticides in rotation to be the most important tools for thrips control, but there are few labeled insecticides that registered in Ethiopia provide effective and consistent control. Therefore, the objective of this review was undertaken to evaluate previous work in the management of onion thrips.

Key words: Allium cepa, biological, Thrips tabaci


Wang, B. Lin, S. Hsiao, W. Fan, J. Fuh, L. Duh P. Protective effects of an aqueous extract of Welsh onion green leaves on oxidative damage of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Food Chem., 2006. 98: 149–157.

CSA. Report of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Statistical Report on Socio Economic Characteristics of the Population in Agricultural Households, Land Use, Area and Production of Crops. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2012. Pp. 14.

Straub, R.W. Emmett, B. Pests of Monocotyledon Crops. In: Mc Kinlay R.G. (Editor). Vegetable Crop Pests. Macmillan Press. U. K., 1992. Pp. 213-262.

Anon. Conference Proceedings, June 2002, Yanco, 2004. Pp. 558.

Fournier,,F. Guy, B., Robin, S. Effect of Thrips tabaci (Thysanopters: Thripidae) on yellow onion yields and economic thresholds for its management. Entomological Society of America, 1995. Vol. 88, No. 5. p. 1401-1407.

Waiganjo, M.M. Mueke, J.M. Gitonga, L.M. Susceptible onion growth stages for selective and economic protection from onion thrips infestation. Afr. J. Hort. Sci., 2008. 1:82-90.

Abate T. Vegetable Crops Pest Management In: (Eds.) W Godfrey W, Bereke TT Proceedings of the first Ethiopian Horticultural Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1985. Pp. 52-55.

Merene, Y. Study on Population ecology and yield loss of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) on onion in Showa Robit district of Amahara region. M.Sc. Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. 2005. Pp. 20 – 43.

Bekele, E. Azerefegne, F. Abate, T. Facilitating the implementation and adoption of IPM in Ethiopia. Proceedings of a Planning Workshop, ASAI/EARO, Nazerath, Ethiopia Bassett, M.J. 1986. Breeding Vegetable Crops. AVI Publishing Co. Inc. West Port. Connecticut. 2006. Pp. 584.

Shiberu, T. In vitro Evaluation of Aqua Extracts of Some Botanicals against Maize Stem Borer, Busseola fusca F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Plant Pathol. Microb, 2013. 4: 179.

Coviello, R. Chaney, W.E. Orloff, S. Onion and Garlic pest management. Guidelines. University of California Statewide IPM program. Davis, CA. UC ANR, 1993. Publication 3453.

Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR). Awassa Station Annual Progress Report. IAR, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1980. Pp. 22.

Nault, L.R. Arthropod transmission plant viruses: a new synthesis” Annals of entomological society of America, 1997. 90: 521 – 541.

Hoffmann, M.P. Curtis, H. Petzoldt, Anne, C. Frodsham. Integrated Pest Management or Onions. Cornell University. Cornell, NY. 1996. Pp. 78.

Tsedeke, A. Vegetable Crops Pest Management In: (Eds.) W Godfrey W, Bereke TT Proceedings of the first Ethiopian Horticultural Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1985. Pp. 52-55.

Childers, C.C. Feeding and oviposition injuries to plants. In: Lewis, T. (Ed.), Thrips as Crop Pests. CAB International, New York, 1997. Pp. 505–537.

Gent, D.H. Schwartz, H.R. Khosla, R. Distribution and incidence of IYSV in Colorado andits relation to onion plant population and yield. Plant Dis., 2004. 88, 446–452.

Hamdy, M.K. Salem, M. The effect of plantation dates of onion, temperature and relative humidity on the population density of the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind. in Egypt. Ann. Agric. Sci. Univ. Ain. Shams (Egypt), 1994. Vol. 39 (1): 417-424.

Murai, T. Effect of temperature on development and reproduction of the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on pollen and honey solution. Applied Entomology. Zool., 2000. 35(4): 499-504.

Gachu, S.M., Muthomi. J.W. Narla, R.D. Nderitu, J.H. Olubayo, F.M. Wagacha, J.M Management of thrips (Thrips tabaci) in bulb onion by use of vegetable intercrops, 2012. Pp. 3.

Belder, E, Elderson, Vereijken, P.F.G. Effects of undersown clover on host-plant selection by Thrips tabaci adults in leek. Exp et Applicata, 2000. 94: 173-182.

Kucharczyk, H. Legutowska, H. Thrips tabaci as a pest of leek cultivated in different conditions. Thrips and Tospovirus, Proceedings of the 7th International Symposiu Thysanoptera, Reggio Calabria, Australian National Insect Collection Canberra, 2002. Pp. 211–213

Trdan, S. Znicdarcic, D. Valic, N. Rozman, L. Vidrih, M. Intercropping against onion thrips, Thrips tabaciLindeman (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) in onion production: on the suitability of rchard grass, lacy phacelia, and buckwheat as alternatives for white clover. J. Plant Dis. Prot, 2005. 13:24-30.

Jensen, L. Simko, B. Shock, C. Saunders, L. Alternative methods for controlling onion thrips (Thrips tabaci)in spanish onion. Malheur Expt. Sta. Oreg. State Univ., Ontarion, Oreg. 2001. Pp. 126.

Larentzaki, E.A. Shelton, M. Plate, J. Effect of kaolin particle film on Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), oviposition, feeding and development on onions: A lab and field case study. 2007. Pp. 727-733.

Parella, M.P, Lewis, T. (IPM in Field Crops. In Thrips as crop pests. Edited by T. Lewis. CAB International. Institute of Arable Crops Research-Rothamsted, Harpenenden, Herts, UK., 1997. Pp. 595-614.

Ellis, B.W. Fern, M.B. The organic gardener’s Handbook of Natural insect and disease control. Rodale press. Emmaus, P.A., 1992 Pp. 534.

Parella, M.P. Murphy, B. Western flower thrips: Identification biology and research on the development of control strategies. Bull, BILB/SROP, USA, 1996. 19: 115-118

Rateaver, G. Organic Method Primer Update. The Rateavers, San Diego,CA., 1993. Pp. 596.

Bentz, J.A., Larew, H.G. Oviposition preference and Nymphal pereforma of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Dendranthema grandiflora under different fertilizer regimes J. Econ. Entomol., 1992. 85: 514-517.

Cantisano, A. Onion thrips cause trouble in many regions. Growing for Market.December, 1999. Pp. 8-9.

Anon. Thrips on onions and cole crops. IPM Practitioner. May-June, 1992. Pp. 13.

Quarles, W. Reflective mulch and thrips-vectored virus. IPM Practitioner. November December, 1990. Pp. 7.

Antignus Y.N Mor R., Ben-Joseph M. L. and Cohen S. Untra violet-absorbing plastic sheets protect crops from insect pests and from virus diseases vectored by insects. Environmental Entomology. 1996. Vol. 25, No. 5.Pp. 919-924.

Ludger, J.S. Jean, R.V. Integrated management of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) in onion (Allium cepa.). Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 2005. 118:125-126.

Muhammad, F. Mohammad, N. Zahid, H. Efficacy of Synthetic Insecticide and Botanical Infusions Against Onion Thrips in Balochistan, Pakistan-I. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 2003. 2: 779-781.

Ibrahim, N.D. Adesiyun, A.A. Effects of staggered planting dates on the control of Thrips tabaci Lindeman and yield of onion in Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 2008. Vol. 4 (1), Pp. 033-039.

Cranshaw, W.S. Onion thrips in Onions, 2004. Pp.25.

Coll, M, Bottrell, D.G. Predator and prey association in mono and diculture: Effect of maize and bean vegetation. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 1995. 54: 115-125.

Gami, S. Lmamura, K.I. Yaguchi, T. Kodama, Y. Minowa, N. Koyama, M. (PF1018 novel insecticidal Compound produced by Humicola sp. J. Antibiotics, 1994. 47: 571-580.

Anonymous. Three botanical insecticide product from the neem tree. IPM Practitioner, 1992.


Klein, M. Meisener, J. Moshe, E.B. Nemny, N.E. Caspy, I. Ascher, K.R.S. Formulation of Neem seed extracts inhibit growth of nymphs of the onionthrips, Thrips tabaci, Hassadech, 1993. 7:189-193.

Bottenberg, H., Singh, B. Effect of neem tree leaf extract applied using the “broom” method, on Cowpea pest and yield. Inte. J. Pest management, 1996. 42: 207- 209.

Hazara, A.H. Shkeel. M. Khan, J. Iqbal, M. Khan, S. An effect of non-chemical methods and botanical insecticides on onion thrips,Thrips tabaci, Lindman (Thysanoptera: Thripdae) in onion crop in Balochistan. Sarhad J. Agri., 1999. 15: 619-624.

Julie, B. Strak, J. Multiple routes of pesticide exposure and the risk of pesticide to biological control: A study of neem and the seven spotted ladybeetle (Coleoptera coccinellidae) J. Econ. Entomol., 1998. 91: 1-6.

Stoll, G. Natural crop protection in the Tropics: Letting information come to life. Hohberg, Germany. 2000.

Dodia, D.A. Pate,l I.S., Patel, G.M. Botanical pesticides for pest management, 2008. Pp. 282-287.

Ayalew G. Comparison among some botanicals and synthetic insecticides for the control of onion thrips, (Thrips tabaci, Lind.) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (Abstract).Paper presented at the 13th Annual Conference of the Crop Protection Society of Ethiopia (CPSE), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2005. Pp. 38.

PAN. How to grow crop without Endosulfan: field guide to non-chemical pest management. Pesticide Action Net work (PAN) Hamburg, Germany. 2008. Pp. 12-23.

Casida, J.E. Pyrethrum: the Natural insecticide. Academic press, New York, 1973. Pp. 329

Omu I, Aliyu M. Evaluation of powdered fruit of four peppers (Capsicum sp.) for the control of Callosobruchus maculates (F) on stored Cowpea seed. Int. J. Pest mag’t. 1995. 41: 143-145.

Bekele, A.J., Ofri, D.O. Hassanal, A. Evaluation of Ocimum suave (Wilde) as a source of repellent, toxicants and protectants in storage against three stored product insect pests. Int. J. Pest managment, 1996. 42: 139-142.

Bateman, R..P., Cary M, Mor D. and Prior C. The enhanced infectivity of Metarhizium falavoviridein oil formulation to desert locust at low humidity. Annals of Applied Biology, 1993. 122:145-152

Abate T. Insecticidal control of onion thrips,Thrips tabaci, in the Awash vally, Ethiopia. Ethiopia Journal of Agricultural sciences, 1983. 5: 32-43.

Abate T and Ayalew G. Progress in vegetable pest management research 1985-1992. In: E. Hearth and L. Dessalegne (eds.). Horticulture research and Development in Ethiopia. Proceeding of the 2nd National Horticultural workshop, 1-3 December, 1992. IAR/FAO, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1994. Pp. 187-193.

Flint, M.L. Pests of the Garden and small farm. University of California. Oakland, CA., 1990. Pp. 276.

Fern, M.B. and Ellis, B.W. The organic gardener’s Handbook of Natural insect and disease control. Rodale press. Emmaus, P.A. ,1992 Pp. 534.

Jensen, L. Strategies for controlling onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) in sweet Spanish onions. Malheur Expt. Sta. Oreg. State Univ., Ontario, Oreg, 1995. Pp. 2-4.

Diane,G.A., Daniel, D. Onion Thrips (Thrips tabaci) Fact sheets ENT-117-08PR. Utah State University Extension and Utah Plant Pest Diagnostic Laboratory, 2008. Pp. 3.

Brian, A.N. Biology and Ecology of Onion thrips on Onion Fields. Cornell University, 2006. Pp. 2

Morse, J.G., Hoddle, M.S. Invasion biology of thrips. Annual reviews of Entomology, 2005 51: 67-89.

Entomology and Applied Science Letters is an international double-blind peer reviewed publication which publishes scientific research & review articles related to insects that contain information of interest to a wider audience, e.g. papers bearing on the theoretical, genetic, agricultural, medical and biodiversity issues. Emphasis is also placed on the selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance. In addition to full-length research articles and reviews, the journal publishes interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, and Letters to the Editor. The journal publishes reports on all phases of medical entomology and medical acarology, including the systematics and biology of insects, acarines, and other arthropods of public health and veterinary significance.

Announcement and Advertisement
Announcements regarding scientific activities such as conferences, symposium, are published for free. Advertisements can be either published or placed on website as banners.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IPS) , University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore Pakistan.
open access
Entomology and Applied Science Letters supports the submission of entomological papers that contain information of interest to a wider reader groups e. g. papers bearing on taxonomy, phylogeny, biodiversity, ecology, systematic, agriculture, morphology. The selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance is also important. Distinguished entomologists drawn from different parts of the world serve as honorary members of the Editorial Board. The journal encompasses all the varied aspects of entomological research.