2021 Volume 8 Issue 1

Coleoptera Fauna Beetles of Nest Birds of the Northern Caucasus


S V Pushkin, B M Tsymbal, Fesenko Galyna, Fesenko Tetiana
Abstract

In this article, we present a faunistic list of species of the order Coleoptera from 13 families: 40 species collected from the nests of 24 bird species in the North Caucasus. To our previously published data, the list of coleopteran species has increased by 2 species. We were able to identify about 20 optional species that got into the bird's nest by accident. These species are not covered and discussed in this article. The rest of the species have complex biocenotic relationships with the host's nest. The transition of species to habitat under conditions of microbiocenosis, which is the nest, is an important evolutionary step. Which deserves a thorough study. In terms of its geographical position, the North Caucasus is a refugium for birds; many species are sedentary throughout the year. This has resulted in a high level of biodiversity of nidicolous Coleoptera compared to the northern geographic regions. The material presented in the article served to create a database on the species of Coleoptera living in nests of birds, this will allow in the future to analyze the seasonal dynamics of the number, as well as the association with one or another host. This work is relevant in the light of the latest data on climate change as well as anthropogenic pressure on natural ecosystems. The species composition of birds is decreasing, while the number of synanthropic species is increasing. Accordingly, we can predict the number of nidicolous species, some of them are of great sanitary and epidemiological significance.


How to cite this article
Vancouver
Pushkin S V, Tsymbal B M, Galyna F, Tetiana F. Coleoptera Fauna Beetles of Nest Birds of the Northern Caucasus. Entomol. Appl. Sci. Lett.. 2021;8(1):45-51. https://doi.org/10.51847/kaC38FBR8Z
APA
Pushkin, S. V., Tsymbal, B. M., Galyna, F., & Tetiana, F. (2021). Coleoptera Fauna Beetles of Nest Birds of the Northern Caucasus. Entomology and Applied Science Letters, 8(1),45-51. https://doi.org/10.51847/kaC38FBR8Z

Coleoptera Fauna Beetles of Nest Birds of the Northern Caucasus

Pushkin SV 1*, Tsymbal BM 2, Fesenko Galyna 3, Fesenko Tetiana 4

 

1 Department of General Biology and Biodiversity, Institute of Living Systems North Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russia.

2 Department of Occupational, Technogenic and Environmental Safety, National University of Civil Defence of Ukraine.

3Department of History and Cultural Studies O. M. Beketov National University of Urban Economy in Kharkiv, Ukraine.

4 Department of Automation and Computer-Integrated Technologies, Kharkiv Petro Vasylenko National Technical University of Agriculture, Kharkiv, Ukraine.


ABSTRACT

In this article, we present a faunistic list of species of the order Coleoptera from 13 families: 40 species collected from the nests of 24 bird species in the North Caucasus. To our previously published data, the list of coleopteran species has increased by 2 species. We were able to identify about 20 optional species that got into the bird's nest by accident. These species are not covered and discussed in this article. The rest of the species have complex biocenotic relationships with the host's nest. The transition of species to habitat under conditions of microbiocenosis, which is the nest, is an important evolutionary step. Which deserves a thorough study. In terms of its geographical position, the North Caucasus is a refugium for birds; many species are sedentary throughout the year. This has resulted in a high level of biodiversity of nidicolous Coleoptera compared to the northern geographic regions. The material presented in the article served to create a database on the species of Coleoptera living in nests of birds, this will allow in the future to analyze the seasonal dynamics of the number, as well as the association with one or another host. This work is relevant in the light of the latest data on climate change as well as anthropogenic pressure on natural ecosystems. The species composition of birds is decreasing, while the number of synanthropic species is increasing. Accordingly, we can predict the number of nidicolous species, some of them are of great sanitary and epidemiological significance.

Keywords: Nidicolous, Bird nest, Beetles, Coleoptera.


INTRODUCTION

 

Among the non-parasitic insects, beetles were the first arthropods that attracted attention in the study of nidicolous animal fauna [1-10]. The mention of beetles as nest dwellers is known as early as the last century [1, 2, 4-8, 11-13]. The first attempts to systematically study beetles from bird nests, as well as to identify the biological relationship between the owner and the inhabitants of his nest, are given in the works of the authors [1-7, 14-19]. We have published the following articles on the study of this issue [20-25].

At present, more than 200 species of beetles are known for which infestation with helminth larvae has been established [3-7, 14-16, 26], which increases interest not only in clarifying the species composition of beetles but also in studying their biology as components of the nest microbiocenosis. For Dermestidae species, the possibility of transferring pathogens has been established [8, 24, 25]. Gamasids are phoresiaphoresizedtic on adults of necrobiont species; according to our research, the following species of gamasid mites have been identified - Poecilochirus necrophori, Parasitus ssp.. These species are capable of tolerating rickettsioses [24, 25].

An interesting direction in the study of the role of the avi vector in the dispersal of alien species of beetles Dermestidae and others associated with bird nests may be the comparison of the primary habitats of beetles recorded as phoronts with migrations of birds.   

MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY

The collection of material was carried out in the regions of the North Caucasus: Stavropol Territory: (Novoaleksandrovsk, Krasnogvardeisky, Izobilnensky, Shpakovsky, Kochubeevsky, Andropovsky, Grachevsky, Mineralovodsky, Predgorny, Levokumsky, Ipatovsky districts), Krasnodar Territory, with. Novopavlovka village), Rostov region: (Rostov-on-Don, Rasypnoe village, Zhukovskoe village), North-Ossetia: (Mozdok town), Kalmykia: (Khurulyun estuary, Tsaryk lake, Solenoe village, Lake Manych). Stationary studies were carried out on the territory of the Stavropol Upland from 2000 to July 2020. The paper presents material on the order of beetles, which in the study area constitute the backbone of the nidicolous fauna of 13 families. The rest of the coleopteran species found in the nests are not presented in this work but are considered as a nidicolophilicnidicolophilic factor in the biology of these species.

We have analyzed ornithological articles in order to understand which species of birds are most visited by Coleoptera [27-37].

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In the beginning, it should be noted that environmental pollution leads to a decrease in the number of nesting birds, and therefore negatively affects the fauna of nidicolles among beetles [11, 12, 19, 26-29, 38-40].

The collection of beetles was carried out from bird nests (Table 1). A total of 390 nests were examined. 2711 beetles, 350 larvae, and 42 pupae were collected. The dynamics of the distribution of species by host nests are shown in Table 1. In some cases, the presence of insects in the nests is difficult to explain and, probably, is associated with random reasons. However, if the detected beetles are classified according to the type of nutrition, it turns out that 24 are polyphages, 20 are necrophages, 20 are keratophages, 16 are coprophages, 12 are detritophages, 8 %% are saproxylophages. The trophic specialization of preimaginals may differ; cannibalism is a characteristic of the species of the genera Thanatophilus and Dermestes [19, 25].


 

Table 1. The confinement of beetles to bird nests (North Caucasus)

list of beetle species

 

Host species in a systematic manner

Anser fabalis

Anas platyrgynchos

Pernis apivorus

Circus macrourus

Accipiter gentilis

Falco subbuteo

Perdix perdix

Columba livia

Streptopelia decaocto

S. turtur

Otus scopus

Merops apister

Ptyonoprogne rupestris

Hirundo rustica

Galerida cristata

Lanius collurio

Pica pica

Corvus frugilegus

C. cornix

Sylviacommunis

Passer domesticus

P. montanus

Emberiza calandra

E. citrinela

SILPHIDAE

Nicrophorus vespillo L.

N. fossor Er.

N. vespilloides Hbst.

Silpha obscura L.

Silpha obscura (larva)

S. carinata Hbst.

S. carinata (larva)

Tanatophilus sinuatus F.

T. sinuatus (larva)

T. terminatus Humm.

DERMESTIDAE

Dermestes frischi (larva)

D. bicolor (larva)

D. bicolor (pup.)

D. bicolor F.

D. coronatus Stev.

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

+

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

+

+

+

 

 

+

 

+

 

 

+

 

+

+

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

+

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

+

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

+

+

+

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

+

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

+

 

+

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

+

+

+

+

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

+

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

+

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

+

+

+

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

+

+

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

+

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

D. lardarius L.

D. murinus L.

Attagenus schaefferi Hbst.

A.sylvaticus

Anthrenus scrophulariae L.

Orphilus niger Er.

TROGIDAE

Trox scaber L.

T. hispidus niger Rossi

T. eversmanni Kryn

T. eversmanni (larva)

SCARABAEIDAE

Aphodius putridus Fourcroy

Onthophagus vitulus F.

O. leucostigma Stev.

CATOPIDAE

Catops picipes F.

C. fuscus Panz.

Catops sp. (larva)

C. coniciollis Rtt.

C. nigrita Er.

PTINIDAE

Ptinus fur L.

Niptus holoieucus Fald.

BYRRHIDAE

Byrrhus pilula L.

HYDROPHILIDAE

Sphaeridium scarabaeoides L.

HISTERIDAE

Hister helluo Truqui,

Paralister carbonarius Ill.,

Margarinotus bipustulatus Schrnk.

CRYPTOPHAGIDAE

Cryptophagus acutangulus Gyll.

NITIDULIDAE

Necrobia violacea L.,

Nitidula bipunctata L.,

TENEBRIONIDAE

Tribolium confusum Duv.,

Tenebrio molitor L.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

+

+

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

+

 

+

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

+

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

+

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

+

+

+

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

+

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

+

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

+

 

+

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

+

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

+

 

+

+

+

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

+

 

+

 

+

 

+

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 


The phenology of the found species of beetles - 48% are species with a spring-summer cycle of reproduction, 44% - a summer cycle, 8% - have a multi-seasonal type of reproduction. Beetles start breeding earlier in the semi-desert and steppe zones of the study area.

The daily activity of most species falls under the description of morning-evening activity (8-10; 18-21 hours), D. bicolor is characterized by twilight activity (6-8; 19-22 hours) [9, 41].

Encounters of adults, larvae, and pupae in nests in all seasons of the year are proof of their good adaptation to the nidicolous way of life (feeding, reproduction) in the specific conditions of the microbiocenosis of the host nest.

Species of the genera Anthrenus, Attagerus, Trox- developed during their evolution in the nests special morphological and behavioral features, a special case is D. bicolor, which never leaves the nest.

We found 298 D. bicolor larvae of different ages in the Otus scops nest. Nidicolas often serve as food for their hosts. We have established the feeding of S. obscura, S. carinata. Th. sinuatus. D. frischi bird species: Corvus frugilegus, Pica pica, Corvus corax, Garrulus glandarius. The species confinement of beetles to different hosts and their nests is shown in Table 1.

Nidicolas play the role of bluebirds in the nest, but according to our observations, with a large number and density of settlement in the nest, they can attack 1-2-day-old chicks (especially weak and inactive ones). The adults and larvae plunge into the ear and eye openings and kill the chicks under the wings. Corpses of chicks, spoiled eggs attract obligate necrophages (Nicrophorus) to the nest. The species of the genus feed in the nest, but do not lay eggs (this can be observed in the nests of large birds of prey, which we have not been examined). Detritivores and saproxylophages develop on the host's food debris, coprophages - excrement, and bird pellets. Keratophages - feathers, down, feather caps.

In the imaginal phase, the species of the genera Attagenus and Anthrenus require additional nutrition on the flowers of angiosperms. Inspection of nests of various birds showed that the species composition and the number of beetles depend primarily on the design of the nest and the nature of the food contained in it. Dermestidae and Trogidae prefer closed nests since their larvae are better protected in them from adverse external conditions. Such nests do not overheat in the sun, daily temperature fluctuations are less pronounced in them, the humidity is constant, the conditions of winter diapause are better. Silphidae and Catopidae were dominant in open nests, near the shores of water bodies and rivers. Scarabaeidae - Found in all types of nests. The material from which the nest is built is of no less importance. Dermestidae never colonizes nests built from plant debris (except for nests of birds of prey). Family species: Ptinidae, Byrrhidae, Hydrophilidae represent the saproxyl block of the nest population. For them, the presence of plant protein is important, but species of the Tenebrionidae family can feed on animal protein.

The life of all nidicolles is associated with the life of the host, however, in Dermestes species this relationship is more pronounced than in keratophages (Attagenus, Anthrenus, Trox) and other groups; this is explained by the fact that Dermestes species feed mainly on foods brought to chicks, the intake of which ends after leaving nests.

Thus, the developmental cycle of Dermestidae is associated with the developmental cycle of the nest host. This is the reason for the monovoltness of Dermestidae - nidicolles, their larvae develop successfully during the feeding of the chicks, and the young beetles appearing in the middle of summer begin to reproduce only in the spring of next year. The dependence of keratophages and other trophic groups is not so great. Wool and feathers - the food of keratophages - persist for an extremely long time (especially in the steppe and semi-desert). Usually, keratophages appear in nests immediately after their construction and reproduce in them throughout the warm part of the year. Keratin feeding leads to the fact that larval development can last 2 years. Separately, it should be said about the species of the family Nitidulidae, which feed on food brought to the nest and show the nest in search of additional food.   

At first glance, it seems strange that in such limited microbiotopes as nests, larvae of different nidicol species can develop simultaneously on the same food. It would be natural to expect that intense competition should arise between these groups, which would lead to the displacement of one of the groups of beetles. With a careful analysis of the nests, we managed to resolve this contradiction using the example of the families Dermestidae and Trogidae. It turned out that despite the relatively small size of the nests, the adults and larvae of Dermestes, Anthrenus, Attagenus, and Trox are territorially separated in them. The larvae of the latter genus live in the lower packed layers, where they move due to the fusiform shape of the body; in the same place, larvae and adults of Anthrenus are more often observed only on the surface of the substrate of the nest, in its upper loose layer. Dermestids live in the nest along the outer boundaries, that is, directly in the litter, on the outer walls of the nest. Trox is found around the entire perimeter of the nest. Species of other families may leave the nest for some time, but they will definitely return to it.

According to our observations, Catopidae develops in rotten and spoiled eggs; species (Catops picipes, C. nigrita) lay eggs inside the egg, the larvae feed on its contents and do not leave the shell until pupation.

The synanthropic species D. lardarius, develops within the cities and villages of the region, in the nests of synanthropic birds, and in the attics of houses with a sufficient sum of positive temperatures (not lower than +11 °C), egg-laying was observed even in December. Mrochkovsky, 1955, indicated the great harm caused by synanthropic kozheedy in pigeons and chicken coops in Poland [17]. It can often be found in the attics of houses, where it can develop year-round.

We expect that our material will be replenished with Latridiidae species discovered by the authors of the article [37, 41, 42].

CONCLUSION

The transition to habitat in nesting microbiotopes, in our opinion, meant the development of new econiches, the emergence of new interspecific relationships - the process was accompanied by intense speciation, which led to the emergence of new ecobiomorphs: nidicolles not found in other habitats, highly specialized to nest conditions and the nature of food. Nesting microbiocenoses as elementary systems of the supraorganism level are of great interest for understanding biocenological structures in their simplest form.

In the next article, we will reveal the mechanisms of dividing the ecological niche of nidicolous animals. And also we will consider the paths of evolution of the nidicolous fauna [33-36].

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The authors are grateful to ornithologists for their help in collecting material from bird nests: Sabelnikova-Begashvili N.V., Ashibokov U.Kh., Chursina N.V., as well as professor Ilyukh M.P. for help in identifying the species of birds.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None

FINANCIAL SUPPORT: Funding was provided by the authors.

ETHICS STATEMENT: The article contains the original data obtained by the authors in the course of carrying out field collections and office processing of the material.


References

1.       Vlasov YaP. Nora as a kind of biotope in the vicinity of Ashgabat. Probl. Parasite. Fauna of Turkmenistan. L.-M. 1937:183-9.

2.       Vlasov Ya. P, Shestoperov EL. Beetles from holes in the vicinity of Ashgabat. Tr. Board studied. Produces. Force, ser. Turkmen. 1937;9:269-75.

3.       Kirschenblat YaD. On the origin of some species of nidicolles (nest dwellers), DAN SSSR, 1935;2(3-4):332-7.

4.       Negrobov VN. Materials on the parasitization of biohelminth larvae in coprophagous beetles (Coprinae, Coleoptera) in the south-east of the central chernozem belt. Materials of scientific. Conf. All-Union. Common Helminthologist., 1963;2:22-3.

5.       Polozhentsev PA, Negrobov VP. To the study of insect hosts of biohelminths in the Voronezh region. Works on the helminthologist. On the 80th anniversary of Acad. K.I.Skryabin, Moscow. 1958:274-88.

6.       Tsedenova LU, Necrophilous beetles as intermediate and additional hosts of vertebrate helminths. Collection of scientific. works: Animal world of Kalmykia, its protection and rational use. Elista. 1982:44-50.

7.       Joy NH. Coleoptera occurring in the nests of mammals and birds. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. 1906;17(42):198-202.

8.       Pushkin SV, Belous VN, Alikhadzhiev MK, Erzhapova RS, Bagrikova NA. Materials on the Fauna of Micetobiont and Mycetophilic Beetles (Coleoptera) Ciscaucasus. Entomol Appl Sci Lett. 2019;6(4):1-6.

9.       Pushkin SV, Kharchenko LN. Contemporary Arahnofauuna of Stavropol Urban Agglomeration. Entomol Appl Sci Lett. 2017;4(4):23-6.

10.   Sazhnev AS, Matyukhin AV. Cases of unintentional phoresy of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) on birds. Ecosystem Transform. 2019;2(2):29-33. DOI: 10.23859/estr-190311.

11.   Pushkin SV, Kharchenko LN. A Variant of the methodology for assessing the state of zoological complexes. Entomol Appl Sci Lett. 2017 Jan 1;4(1):23-5.

12.   Pushkin S, Tsymbal B, Artemev S, Fesenko G, Fesenko T. Eco-Faunistic Review of the Silphidae Family (Coleoptera: Silphidae) of the Greater Caucasus. Entomol Appl Sci Lett. 2020;7(1):61-6.

13.   Pushkin SV. Insecta: Coleoptera Inventory of the Precaucasian and Adjacent Territories. Moscow. Direct-Media. 2019; 229 p. DOI: 10.23681/575393

14.   Bickhardt H. Käfer in Maulwurfnestern. Emtomol Blätt. 1916;12:49-53.

15.   Gensicke F. Zur Kenntnis der Nestfauna einiger Muridenarten in der Umgebung von Greifswald. Wiss. Zeitschr. Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Univ. Greifswald. 1960;9(2-3):189-97.

16.   Loew F. Bewohner der Schwalbennester. Verh. KK zool.-bot. Ges Wien. 1867;12:237-43.

17.   Mroczkowski M. Silphidae. Klucze do oznaczania owadow Polski. Warszawa, 1955;19:25-30.

18.   Norman J. coleoptera from old birds nests. Entomol Month Mag. 1906;17:39-76.

19.   Strouthal H, Beier M. Beitrag zur Coleopterenfauna der Maulwnurfnestern in der nächsten Umgebung Wien. Zeitschr. f. morph. Okol. d. Tiere. 1928;12:191-239.

20.   Pushkin S, Tsymbal B, Artemev S, Fesenko G, Fesenko T. Eco-Faunistic Review of the Silphidae Family (Coleoptera: Silphidae) of the Greater Caucasus. Entomol Appl Sci Lett. 2020;7(1):44-8.

21.   Pushkin SV, Tsymbal BM, Rybalova OV. Use of Population Indicators of Beetle (Coleoptera, Silphidae, Dermestidae) in Bioindicacion of the Environmental Status. Entomol Appl Sci Lett. 2019;6(4):13-7.

22.   Pushkin SV, Tsymbal BM. Ecologic and Zoogeographic Characteristics of the Genus Orphilus Er.(Coleoptera: Dermestidae) in Palearctic Zone. Entomol Appl Sci Lett. 2019;6(3):27-32.

23.   Viktorovich PS. Revision of the material of collections of the carpet beetle (Dermestidae). Part 1. Faunistic Review. Entomol Appl Sci Lett 2019 Mar 27;6(1):8-21.

24.   Pushkin SV. Discoveries of carpet beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) of the South of Russia. Entomol Appl Sci Lett. 2017 Jan 1;4(2):29-31. DOI: 10.24896/easl2017427

25.   Pushkin SV. Environmental group necrophilous and necrobionts beetles (Insecta; Coleoptera) of the south of the Russia. Entomol Appl Sci Lett. 2015 Jan 1;2(4):1-9.

26.   Vojtov VA, Tsymbal BM. Study of Tribological Characteristics of Compatible Materials in Tribosystems of Extruders for Manufacturing Solid Fuel from Biomass. J Friction Wear. 2018 Nov;39(6):500-4.

27.   Samplonius JM, Kappers EF, Brands S, Both C. Phenological mismatch and ontogenetic diet shifts interactively affect offspring condition in a passerine. J Anim Ecol. 2016 Sep;85(5):1255-64.

28.   Hamao S, Higuchi M, Jinbo U, Maeto K, Furuki K. Interaction among birds, mosses and insects in bird nests. Japanese Journal of Ornithology. 2016;65(1):37-42. 10.3838/jjo.65.37.

29.   Biddle LE, Broughton RE, Goodman AM, Deeming DC. Composition of bird nests is a species-specific characteristic. Avian Biol Res. 2018 May;11(2):132-53.

30.   Hanmer HJ, Thomas RL, Beswick GJ, Collins BP, Fellowes MD. Use of anthropogenic material affects bird nest arthropod community structure: influence of urbanisation, and consequences for ectoparasites and fledging success. J Ornithol. 2017 Oct;158(4):1045-59.

31.   Radhamany D, Das KS, Azeez PA, Wen L, Sreekala LK. Usage of nest materials by house sparrow (Passer domesticus) along an urban to rural gradient in Coimbatore, India. Trop Life Sci Res. 2016 Aug;27(2):127-34. 10.21315/tlsr2016.27.2.10.

32.   Reynolds SJ, Davies CS, Elwell E, Tasker PJ, Williams A, Sadler JP, et al. Does the Urban Gradient Influence the Composition and Ectoparasite Load of Nests of an Urban Bird Species?. Avian Biol Res. 2016 Nov;9(4):224-34. 10.3184/175815516X14725499175665.

33.   Lapshin NV, Matantseva MV, Simonov SA. Choosing a place for a nest and nesting in the willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus L., 1758) (Sylviidae, Aves) in the taiga zone of North-West Russia. Povolzhsky Ecol J. 2019;(3):322-34. DOI: 10.35885/1684-7318-2019-3-322-334

34.   Gullan PJ, Cranston PS. The Insects an outline of entomology. Wiley- Blackwell, 2017; 632 p. ISBN 978-1-118-84615-5. Available online: https://trove.nla.gov.au/work/9113436.

35.   Ilyukh MP. Wintering birds of prey and owls of the Ciscaucasia. Russ Ornithol J. 2020;29(1931):2516-31.

36.   Sazhnev AS, Kondrat'ev EN. Coleoptera (Insecta: Coleoptera) From NOR-Swallows Beregovushek Riparia Riparia (Linnaeus, 1758) (Aves: Hirundinidae) Field Saratov region. J Biol.  2021;2(4):276-81.

37.   Vlasov DV, Nikitsky NB, Saluk SV. Fauna of lurking beetles (Coleoptera, Latridiidae) of the Yaroslavl region. Bull Moscow Soc Nat. Department of Biology. 2018;123(4):8-18.

38.   Vojtov VA, Biekirov AS, Voitov AV, Tsymbal BM. Running-in Procedures and Performance Tests for Tribosystems. J Friction Wear. 2019 Sep;40(5):376-83. 

39.   Vojtov VA, Kravtsov AG, Tsymbal BM. Evaluation of Tribotechnical Characteristics for Tribosystems in the Presence of Fullerenes in the Lubricant. J Friction and Wear. 2020 Nov;41(6):521-5.

40.   Spitsov D, Nekrasova L, Kondratenko L, Pushkin S, Klyuchnikov D. The effect of agricultural practices on the drinking water quality: a case study. Asian J Water, Environ Pollut. 2020 Jan 1;17(2):73-80. DOI: 10.3233/AJW200023

41.   Pushkin SV. Necrobiont Coleoptera of the North Caucasus. Moscow. Direct-Media. 2019; 183 p. DOI: 10.23681/575396

42.   Victorovich PS, Pavlovich IM. Endemism, relicts and invasion spices of animals in structure of the biodiversity of the Ciscaucasia. Entomol Appl Sci Lett. 2018 Jan 1;5(1):17-20.


Entomology and Applied Science Letters is an international peer reviewed publication which publishes scientific research & review articles related to insects that contain information of interest to a wider audience, e.g. papers bearing on the theoretical, genetic, agricultural, medical and biodiversity issues. Emphasis is also placed on the selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance. Papers on non-insect groups are no longer accepted. In addition to full-length research articles and reviews, the journal publishes interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, and Letters to the Editor. The journal publishes reports on all phases of medical entomology and medical acarology, including the systematics and biology of insects, acarines, and other arthropods of public health and veterinary significance.
Issue 2 Volume 8 - 2021
Call for Papers
Entomology and Applied Science Letters supports the submission of entomological papers that contain information of interest to a wider reader groups e. g. papers bearing on taxonomy, phylogeny, biodiversity, ecology, systematic, agriculture, morphology. The selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance is also important. Distinguished entomologists drawn from different parts of the world serve as honorary members of the Editorial Board. The journal encompasses all the varied aspects of entomological research. This has become the need felt in scientific research due to the emphasis on intra-, inter-, and multi-disciplinary approach.