2021 Volume 8 Issue 4

Efficacy of Synthetic Pyrethroids on Camel Ticks Hyalomma dromedarii “Acari: Ixodidae” in Saudi Arabia


Aziz Al Thabiani, Chellasamy Panneerselvam, Mohammed Ali Alshehri, Khalid Ali Asiry, Majed Alsaif, Yasser Alhowity
Abstract

Arthropods are highly effective vectors for a number of life threatening pathogens, parasites, viruses etc., across the world. Hyalomma dromedarii Koch is the prominent tick species infesting camels. Therefore, in this research we studied the insecticidal efficacy of commercially available deltamethrin (DM), Cypermethrin (Cym) and α-Cypermethrin (α-Cym) in the fight against the adult of H. dromedarii through in vitro immersion bioassays. In this study, different concentrations of all selected synthetic insecticides (25, 50, 100, and 150 ppm) were freshly prepared. In toxicity assays, compared to Cym, adult tick mortality was found to be higher in DM followed by α-Cym treated ticks. The mortaltiy rates were increased after 48 h post-treatment of synthetic pyrethroids when compared with 24 h and the LC50 values for 24 h post-treatment with DM, Cym and α-Cym were 66.93, 129.72, and 81.08 ppm respectively, whereas that 48 h post-treatment were 4.23, 37.25, and 3.12 ppm. Our findings suggest that the DM and α-Cym were more effective against adult Hyalomma dromedarii than Cym.


How to cite this article
Vancouver
Al Thabiani A, Panneerselvam C, Alshehri M A, Asiry K A, Alsaif M, Alhowity Y. Efficacy of Synthetic Pyrethroids on Camel Ticks Hyalomma dromedarii “Acari: Ixodidae” in Saudi Arabia. Entomol. Appl. Sci. Lett. 2021;8(4):27-32. https://doi.org/10.51847/Wh2eBFytXV
APA
Al Thabiani, A., Panneerselvam, C., Alshehri, M. A., Asiry, K. A., Alsaif, M., & Alhowity, Y. (2021). Efficacy of Synthetic Pyrethroids on Camel Ticks Hyalomma dromedarii “Acari: Ixodidae” in Saudi Arabia. Entomology and Applied Science Letters, 8(4),27-32. https://doi.org/10.51847/Wh2eBFytXV

Efficacy of Synthetic Pyrethroids on Camel Ticks Hyalomma dromedarii “Acari: Ixodidae” in Saudi Arabia

 

Al Thabiani Aziz1*, Chellasamy Panneerselvam1, Mohammed Ali Alshehri1, Khalid Ali Asiry2, Majed Alsaif3, Yasser Alhowity4

 

1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

2Agriculture Department, Faculty of Environmental Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

3Vector Control Department, Public Health Department, Ministry of Health, Hail, Saudi Arabia

4Tabuk Municipality, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.


ABSTRACT

Arthropods are highly effective vectors for a number of life threatening pathogens, parasites, viruses etc., across the world. Hyalomma dromedarii Koch is the prominent tick species infesting camels. Therefore, in this research we studied the insecticidal efficacy of commercially available deltamethrin (DM), Cypermethrin (Cym) and α-Cypermethrin (α-Cym) in the fight against the adult of H. dromedarii through in vitro immersion bioassays. In this study, different concentrations of all selected synthetic insecticides (25, 50, 100, and 150 ppm) were freshly prepared. In toxicity assays, compared to Cym, adult tick mortality was found to be higher in DM followed by α-Cym treated ticks. The mortaltiy rates were increased after 48 h post-treatment of synthetic pyrethroids when compared with 24 h and the LC50 values for 24 h post-treatment with DM, Cym and α-Cym were 66.93, 129.72, and 81.08 ppm respectively, whereas that 48 h post-treatment were 4.23, 37.25, and 3.12 ppm. Our findings suggest that the DM and α-Cym were more effective against adult Hyalomma dromedarii than Cym.

Keywords: Hyalomma dromedarii, Insecticides, Pyrethroids; Ticks, Toxicity


INTRODUCTION

 

Ticks are second-most among rickettsial vectors, bacterial, viral, and protozoan agents compared to mosquitoes. Hyalomma dromedarii was predominantly tick-infected camels, about 89% of Sudan camels [1] and 95.6% of Sinai camels were infected [2] and 57.13% in Benha and Belbis, Egypt [3-5]. It is distributed in deserts and semi-deserts from northwestern India to Arabia [6]. Hyalomma dromedarii belongs to family Ixodidae [7]; has played a leading role in transferring many diseases worldwide [8, 9]. Adult Hyalomma dromedarii infect chiefly camel. Cattle are also considered, but camels are the prime hosts of ticks ans mites. Camelus dromedarius (Arabian camel) is the smallest of the three species and are a significant source for variable animal products. Camels were exposed to wide spectrum of external parasites, which impair health and productivity directly and indirectly, and their active control is of pivotal importance.

The usual efficient method to reduce the menace by ticks to humans, animals, and livestock is to use the repellants and acaricides. However, the recurrent use, insufficient dose of compounds led to increasing resistances in ticks. Use of synthetic pesticides utilization and repellents for target veterinary pests and medical importance became progressively and more challenging. Also, synthetic insecticide applications had been increased in controlling urban, agricultural pests as well as mosquitoes. In our investigation, the effort had been made for draw together some salient point concerning the significant ectoparasites of the camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Saudi Arabia. The development of tick resistances and high cost of the conventional ectoparasitic drugs have limited the control of veterinary parasites and hence led to the evaluation of therapeutic plants as an alternative source for controlling ticks. This present investigation aims to determine the ticks population in north and west parts (Tabuk, Taif, and Hail) of Saudi Arabia, and also we studied the efficacy of some potential synthetic pyrethroids against ticks using adult immersion techniques (AIT).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Collection and identification of ticks

A total of 500 hard ticks were collected from the camel farms of Tabuk, Taif and Hail cities and the locations were Amman Road (28°53'N, 35°54'E), Madinah Road (28°26'N, 37°11'E), Duba Road (28°24'N, 36°32'E) and Industrial area (28°24'N, 36°32'E), Hail (27°53'N, 41°74'E) and Taif (21°23'N, 40°48'E).), Saudi Arabia from September 2016 to December 2018. The collected tick samples from infected camels were brought to Medical Entomology and Toxicology laboratory, Department of Biology, University of Tabuk for taxonomical identification using standard identification key [10]. Then, the identified ticks were maintained under laboratory conditions for bioassay studies.

Insecticides

The synthetic pyrethroids 5% deltamethrin (DM), 10% cypermethrin (Cym), and α- cypermethrin (α-Cym) were purchased from the local market, Saudi Arabia, and different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 150 ppm) were freshly prepared with distilled water for bioassay studies against ticks by adult immersion techniques.

Experimental groups and adult immersion test (AIT)

Following the method described by Drummond et al. [11] and Sharma et al. [12], AIT was conducted against ticks. Randomly 200 ticks were distributed into four groups with 20 specimens. Control was maintained with distilled water. All experiments were performed in duplicate. The mortality of ticks was observed after 24 h and 48 h post-treatment.

Statistical analysis

Data were analyzed descriptively for the mean and standard deviation. Statistical analyses were carried out using Graph Pad Prism 4 and SPSS software (16 version).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Ticks classification

In this research, 500 hard ticks were collected from the selected study sites. Among the chosen study sites, the highest populations of tick specimens were Hyalomma dromedarii (Table 1; Figure 1). These included 95% of Hyalomma dromedarii (55% Male and 40% Female), others 2% included Hyalomma truncatum (1% male and female), and 1% Hyalomma rufipes (only male), and 2% unidentified soft ticks. The distribution of ticks was found to be related to temperature, relative humidity, and rainfalls. Because of the easy accessibility for further studies, we have focused on the species Hyalomma dromedarii.

 

Table 1. Total number of ticks collected from different regions of Saudi Arabia

No. of female

No. of male

Species

Locations

40

55

Hyalomma dromedarii

Tabuk

1

1

Hyalomma truncatum

0

1

Hyalomma rufipes

0

31

Hyalomma dromedarii

Taif

0

4

Hyalomma truncatum

2

2

Unknown

1

24

Hyalomma dromedarii

Hail

12

1

Hyalomma truncatum

6

2

Hyalomma rufipes