Creative Commons License 2023 Volume 10 Issue 2

Fauna of Biting Midges (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Russia


Abstract

Blood-sucking midges of the family Simuliidae are small two-winged insects from the suborder of long-whiskers (Diptera: Nematocera). They are widely distributed in all landscape-geographical zones of the Russian Federation and have important medical and epidemiological significance as hematophagy and vectors of human and animal diseases. The hydrological regime of the watercourse and biotopic factors deter-mine the species composition and number of midges developing in the watercourse, as well as the blood-sucking activity of the flown females. The paper presents data on the species diversity of blood-sucking midges, by region, currently about 1600 species of midges belonging to 81 genera are known in the world fauna, and the question of the ecologi-cal properties of insects depending on the climatic features of habitats is raised. Presently, systematic studies of the areas and population density of the main vectors of infection on the territory of the Russian Federation are not carried out or are carried out only in some individual regions, which makes it much more difficult to assess the risk of introduction and spread of infections. Due to global warming, there is a possibility of penetration of the most plastic species of blood-sucking arthropods into the northern regions, which will have a direct impact on the epidemiology and epizootology of vector-borne diseases. This includes regular study of biota diversity, identification of changes, comparing them with shifts in environmental parameters, analysis of changes, conclusions on necessary measures to preserve biodiversity, and identifying the impacts of global changes on biota.


How to cite this article
Vancouver
Fiodorova OA. Fauna of Biting Midges (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Russia. Entomol Appl Sci Lett. 2023;10(2):56-67. https://doi.org/10.51847/sA16lMnTX4
APA
Fiodorova, O. A. (2023). Fauna of Biting Midges (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Russia. Entomology and Applied Science Letters, 10(2), 56-67. https://doi.org/10.51847/sA16lMnTX4
Downloads: 15
Views: 70

Fauna of Biting Midges (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Russia

 

Olga Alexandrovna Fiodorova1*

 

1All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Veterinary Entomology and Arachnology- Branch of Federal State Institution Federal Research Centre Tyumen Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tyumen, Russian Federation.


ABSTRACT

Blood-sucking midges of the family Simuliidae are small two-winged insects from the suborder of long-whiskers (Diptera: Nematocera). They are widely distributed in all landscape-geographical zones of the Russian Federation and have important medical and epidemiological significance as hematophagy and vectors of human and animal diseases. The hydrological regime of the watercourse and biotopic factors deter-mine the species composition and number of midges developing in the watercourse, as well as the blood-sucking activity of the flown females. The paper presents data on the species diversity of blood-sucking midges, by region, currently about 1600 species of midges belonging to 81 genera are known in the world fauna, and the question of the ecologi-cal properties of insects depending on the climatic features of habitats is raised. Presently, systematic studies of the areas and population density of the main vectors of infection on the territory of the Russian Federation are not carried out or are carried out only in some individual regions, which makes it much more difficult to assess the risk of introduction and spread of infections. Due to global warming, there is a possibility of penetration of the most plastic species of blood-sucking arthropods into the northern regions, which will have a direct impact on the epidemiology and epizootology of vector-borne diseases. This includes regular study of biota diversity, identification of changes, comparing them with shifts in environmental parameters, analysis of changes, conclusions on necessary measures to preserve biodiversity, and identifying the impacts of global changes on biota.

Keywords: Biting midges, Release, Fauna, Affinity of species composition.


INTRODUCTION

 

Midges are one of the components of insects of the "gnus" complex. Simuliids are widespread in all landscape-geographical zones of the Russian Federation and are of great medical and epidemiological significance as hematophagy and vectors of human and animal diseases. Currently, systematic studies of the ranges and population density of the main carriers of infection in the Russian Federation, unfortunately, are not carried out or are carried out only in some individual regions, which greatly complicates the assessment of the risk of introduction and spread of infections. In connection with the ongoing processes of global warming on the planet, there is a possibility of the penetration of the most plastic species of blood-sucking arthropods into the northern regions, which will have a direct impact on the epidemiology and epizootology of vector-borne diseases [1, 2]. The International Convention on Biological Diversity, adopted at a special conference of the UN General Assembly in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, includes a requirement to ensure the monitoring of biodiversity at the national and international levels. The article summarizes the available materials of publications on blood-sucking midges, common in Russia, and their role as carriers of pathogens.

Biting midges of the family Simuliidae are small two-winged insects from the Nematocera suborder. The preimaginal stages develop under conditions of favorable oxygen and hydrological conditions in fast-flowing rivers and streams, using aquatic macrophytes, leaf litter, stones, and artificial substrates as attachment substrates. The hydrological regime of the watercourse and biotopic factors determine the species composition and number of midges developing in the watercourse, as well as the blood-sucking activity of emerging females [3].

Midges are one of the components of insects of the "gnus" complex. Simuliids are widespread in all landscape-geographical zones of the Russian Federation and are of great medical and epidemiological significance as hematophages and vectors of human and animal diseases. Currently, systematic studies of the ranges and population density of the main carriers of infection in the Russian Federation, unfortunately, are not carried out or carried out only in some individual regions, which greatly complicates the assessment of the risk of introduction and spread of infections. In connection with the ongoing processes of global warming on the planet, there is a possibility of the penetration of the most adaptive species of blood-sucking arthropods into the northern regions, which will have a direct impact on the epidemiology and epizootiology of vector-borne diseases [1, 2].  The International Convention on Biological Diversity, adopted at a special conference of the UN General Assembly in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, includes a requirement to ensure the monitoring of biodiversity at the national and international levels. These include the regular study of biota diversity, identification of changes, their comparison with shifts in the values ​​of environmental parameters, analysis of changes, conclusions about the necessary measures to conserve biodiversity, and identification of the impacts of global changes on biota [4]. In connection with all of the above, we have attempted to summarize the currently available publications on biting midges common in Russia and their role as carriers of pathogens.

Currently, about 1600 species of midges belonging to 81 genera are known in the world's fauna [5]. Most of the studies on the fauna of biting midges in Russia were carried out in the second half of the 20th century; since then, there have been significant changes in the taxonomy of the family Simuliidae [5], therefore, in the table, which presents the species composition of biting midges according to the literature data, we give modern names of species and genera, and in brackets - used earlier.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

In this paper, an analysis of our data, as well as literary data, is carried out, which speaks about the spread of blood-sucking midges and the medical and epidemiological significance of hematophages and vectors of human and animal diseases in the territory of Russia.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The most complete faunistic list of biting midges in Western Siberia and the Ural is presented in the monographs of I.A. Rubtsova [6], V.D. Patrusheva [7], and V.A. Yankovsky [5]. For Western Siberia, I.A. Rubtsov [6] notes 18 species, according to V.D. Patrusheva [7] there are at least 40 species inhabiting the region. According to the research of V.D. Patrusheva [7] a typical form of Simulium morsitans Edw., noted by I.A. Rubtsov, does not occur in Siberia, and therefore information on this species refers either to Sim. longipalpe Belt., or to any of the close forms, while the species is indicated as Simulium sp. aff. Morsitans Edw.

The first information on the fauna of midges in the Tyumen region is presented in the monograph by I.A. Rubtsov [3] and their systematic study began in 1959 by employees of the Biological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences (now the Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences). During this period, fauna of the Tyumen region included all finds on the territory of the modern Yamalo-Nenets and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrugs, and the south of the region. In this article, we divided the literature data on the species composition of midges according to the place of their discovery into these three independent regions.

The species composition of biting midges in the south of the Tyumen region was studied by V.D. Patrusheva, V.I. Bukshtynov, V.U. Mitrokhin, and Yu.V. Gultyaev.

In the suburbs of Demyanskoe V.D. Patrusheva [8] found 8 species: Cnetha verna Macq., Byssodon maculatus Mg., Nevermannia angustitarsis Lund., Eusimulium aureum Fries, Schoenbaueria pusilla Fries, Odagmia ornate Mg., Sim. (morsitans) longipalpe Edw., Simulium rostratum Lund., of which B. maculatus was the absolute dominant. In the Tyumen region, V.I. Bukshtynov [9] discovered 5 species of midges: B. maculatus, Schoenbaueria nigra Mg., Boophthora erythrocephala D.G., Argentisimulium noelleri Fried., Sim. sp. aff. morsitans Edw. V.U. Mitrokhin as a result of research carried out in various natural and climatic zones of the south of the Tyumen region [10-12] discovered 11 species of midges, adding two species to the existing list - Parabyssodon transiens Rubz. and Simulium reptans L.

In 1982 V.D. Patrusheva [7] added Sim longipalpe Edw., Simulium venustum Say. to the list of known species.

In 2003-2010, cases of detection of entomology and disinsection at the All-Russian Research Institute of Veterinary Entomology and Arachnology were revealed. As a result of the research, the faunistic list was filled with 1 species - Schoenbaueria subpusilla Rub. [13]. Thus, the fauna of midges of the family Simuliidae in the south of the Tyumen region includes 14 localities of 10 genera.

In the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, the study of the fauna of biting midges was carried out only in the 60s-80s of the last century. V.D. Patrushev [7, 14] discovered 8 species in the suburbs of the village Oktyabrskoye: Cnetha silvestris Rubz., Cnetha pugetensis Dyar. et Schan., C. verna, B. maculatus, Sch. pusilla, Argentisimulium (Simulium) palustre Rubz., Sim. (morsitans) longipalpe, Sim. rostratum, of which B. maculatus and Sch. pusilla. I.N. Ishmuratov [15] registered 7 species of midges in the district, adding two species to the known list: B. erythrocephala and Sim. sp. aff. venustum. In the Surgut district of S.A. Novitskaya [16] discovered 6 species of midges previously discovered.

E.G. Zavyalov [17] recorded 3 species in the Surgut region, and N.M. Krylov [18] in the area of ​​the Samotlor oil field - 6 previously known species. E.G. Zavyalov [17] recorded 3 species in the Surgut region, and N.M. Krylov [18] in the area of ​​the Samotlor oil field - 6 previously known species. In the suburbs of Nefteyugansk, 2 species prevailed: B. maculatus and Sch. pusilla [19]. When studying the breeding sites of midges, V.U. Mitrokhin [11] established another species, P. transiens, in the lower reaches of the Irtysh. Later, in 1974, V.U. Mitrokhin [12] noted 10 species for this region, of which three were identified for the first time – Sch. nigra, Simulium sp. aff. morsitans Edw., Simulium tuberosum Lund. In 1982 V.D. Patrusheva [7] added one more species to the list of midges living in the area - Gnus malyschevi Dorog., Rubz. et Vlas. According to the literature materials, the fauna of the biting midges of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug is represented by 15 species belonging to 8 genera.

The study of blood-sucking dipterous insects, including midges, on the territory of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug was mainly carried out during the exploration of new oil and gas fields in the second half of the 20th century. In the area of ​​\u200b\u200bthe village of Labytnangi, V.D. Patrusheva and P.E. Polyakova [20] established the habitation of 8 species: B. maculatus, Schoenbaueria rangiferina Rubz., Sch. pusilla, Gnus corbis Tw., O. ornata, Archesimulium vulgare Dorog., Rubz. et Vlas., Sim. (morsitans) longipalpe, Sim. rostratum.

In the forest-tundra zone, V.D. Patrusheva [8] also notes 8 blood-sucking species of midges, while she believes that another 2 species registered by I.A. Rubtsov [3] for the north of Western Siberia: Prosimulium hirtipes Fries and Schoenbaueria gigantean Rubz. should be included, which she did not find.

Predominant species, according to V.D. Patrusheva [8], are Sch. pusilla and Sim. longipalpe. S.A. Novitskaya [21], after conducting research in the forest tundra of the Purovsky district, added 2 species to the faunistic list of blood-sucking midges in the district: B. erythrocephala and Sim. venustum. In 1972, V.D. Patrusheva (1972a) discovered one species of midges in the Polar Urals - Schoenbaueria tshernovskii Rub.. Later V.A. Shchepetkin [22] registered the habitation of 1 more species in the area - Simulium truncatum Lund., in addition, the author found larvae of 4 more species in watercourses: Cnephia pallipes Fr., Metacnephia tredecimata Edw., Cnetha bicornis Dor. et Rubz. and C. verna. In the suburbs of the village, Shchuchye V.D. Patrusheva [23] registered 2 previously registered species of midges, C. pallipes and Sim. truncatum.

Two years later, V.D. Patrusheva et al. [24] added three more species to the list of midges: Metacnephia trigoniformis Yank., Metacnephia pectinata Patr., Metacnephia korsacovi Rubz. In 1982 V.D. Patrusheva [7] discovered 9 new species for the region: Metacnephia edwarsiana Rubz., Metacnephia tabescentifrons End., E. aureum, C. silvestris, C. pugetensis, Parabyssodon transiens Rubz., Schoenbaueria brachyarthran Rubz., Simulium posticatum Mg. and Archesimulium tuberosum Lund. In the suburbs of the village Cape Kamenny, the Neito lake system and the middle course of the river. Yuribey L.V. Boldarueva [25] discovered 6 additional species: Prosimulium kolymensis Patr., Stegopterna trigoni Lund., Cnetha arcticum Rubz., Sch. subpusilla, Archesimulium tumulosum Rubz. and Sim. tuberosum.

In 1987 L.V. Petrozhitskaya [26] in the northern forest-tundra of Yamal confirmed the presence of one species indicated by I.A. Rubtsov [3] Sch. gigantea. As a result of the analysis of literature data, it was found that the fauna of the biting midges of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug is represented by 40 species belonging to 16 genera.

In the Taimyr Autonomous Okrug, the midgets' fauna is poorly studied. The most studied part of the district was the right bank of the Yenisei. As a result of studies carried out in 1965-1968 [27] 23 species of biting midges were identified: Gymnopais trifistulatus Rubz., Prosimulium alpestre Dor. et Rubz., P. hirtipes Fries, P. arcticum Rubz. et Carls., Helodon irkutensis Rubz., Stegopterna trigoni End., S. duodecimata Rubz., S sp., Cnephia pallipes Fries (Cnephia lapponica End.), B. maculatus,, Cnetha verna Macquart (Eusimulim latipes Mgeigen), Schonbaueria pusilla Fries, Sch.subpusilla Rubz., Sch.rangiferina Rubz., Gnus cholodkovskii Rubz., G.rostratumLundstr, SimuliumvulgareRubz.,Sim. Rostratum Lundstrom (Simulium argyreatum Meigen), Sim.morsitans longipalpe Belt., Sim.sp. from the group venustum Say, Sim.verecundum St. etJamnb., while some of the captured individuals were identified only to the genus - Cnephia sp.

The fauna of the European part of Russia is considered to be well-studied in the article by Medvedev S.G. [28].

The blackfly fauna of Karelia and the Murmansk region has been studied by many researchers [3, 29-31]. In total, according to Aibulatov S.V., Baryshev I.A. [32] found 38 species from 10 genera. Collections were carried out in 7 districts of the Murmansk region and in 12 districts of Karelia. For the Murmansk region 15 species were identified: Prosimulium macropuga Lundstrom, Helodon ferrugineus Wahlberg, Metacnephia biliniata Rubz., M. tredecimata Edwards, Wilhelmia eguina Lannaeus, Cnetha beltukovae Rubz., C. Bicorne Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko, C.cryophila Rubz., C.curvans Rubz. Et Carlsson, C. Silvestris Rubz., Schonbaueria subpusilla Rubz., Odagmia argyreata Mg., O. Bronchialis Rubz., O. Laplandica Chubarevae et Yankovsky, O. Ornate Mg., Archesimulium tuberosum Rubz., and 29 species in the Republic of Karelia: Wilhelmia eguina Lannaeus, Hellichiella crassum Rubz. (Boreosimuluim crassum Rubz.), Cnetha beltukovae Rubz., C. Bicorne Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko, C. cryophila Rubz., C. elburna Rubz. Et Carlsson, C.meigeni Rubz. et Carlsson, C. silvestris Rubz., Cnetha verna Macq., Eusimulium angustipes Edw., Boophthora erythrocephala D. G., Gnus corbisTwinn ( Gnus murmanum End.), Odagmia argyreata Mg., O. frigida Rubz., O. fusca Rubz., O. intermedia Roubaud., O. Laplandica Chubarevae et Yankovsky, O. monticola Fiederichs, O. Ornate Mg., O. rotundata Rubz., Archesimulium polare Rubz., Arch. tuberosum Rubz., Argentisimulium noelleri Fried (SimuliumnoelleriFried), Simulium janzeni End., Sim. longipalpe Belt., Sim. morsitans Edw., Sim. paramorsitans Rubz., Sim. posticatum Mg., Sim. reptans L., Sim.rostratum Lund., Sim.rubzovi Smart.

The entomofauna of the southeast of Karelia remained a blank spot for a long time, despite the undoubted interest in the easternmost region of Fennoscandia, this region occupies a border position at the junction of the Baltic Shield and the Andoma Upland. Research conducted by Humala A.E. and Polevoy A.V. (2009) identified the following species: Gnus corbis Twinn, Simulium rostratum Lund., Cnetha bicorne Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko, C. verna Macguart, Sim.morsitans Edw., Sim. reptans L., Archesimulium tuberosum Lund.

In Primorsky Krai, where the first information on the fauna and ecology of midges was published in the works of A.V. Gutsevytsya [33], Z.A. Radzivilovskaya [34-36], K.Ya. Grunina [37], I.A. Rubtsova [3]. In subsequent years, no one was engaged in the study of midges in the Primorsky Territory. 24 species belonging to 9 genera were registered: Gymnopaissp.n, Helodon rubicundus Rubz., H. Alpestris Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko, (Prosimulium alpestre Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko), H. multicaulis Popov. (P. multicaulis Popov.), Prosimulium macropuga Lundstrom, P. sp. aff. macropuga Lundstrom, P. hirtipes Fries. (P. Hirtipes diminutum Rubz.), P. Irritans Rubz., Stegopterna sp., Cnephia pallipes Fries (Metacnephia pallipes Fries), Byssodon sp., Eusimulium schogakii Rubz., E. Latipes Mg.,E. Fontinale Radz., E. Bicorn Dor. Et Rubz., E. Pygmeum amurense Rubz.,E. Sp., Gnus malyschevi albipes Rubz., G. rostratum Lundstr., G. subvariegatum Rubz., Simulium vulgare Rubz., Sim. tumulosum Rubz., Sim. Venustum Say, Sim.morsitans Edw. [38].

On the territory of the Volgograd region of the Lower Volga zone, biting midges are an insufficiently studied group of insects, according to Denisov A.A., Ivantsov E.A. [39] identified five species of midges belonging to five genera: Byssodonmaculatus Mg. (Titanopteryx maculatus Meigen), Schoenbaueria nigra Mg. (Schoenbaueria behningi End., Schoenbaueria matthiesseni Enderlein), Odagmia ornate Mg., Boophthora erythrocephala D. G., Simulium morsitans Edw.

Studies on the zoobenthos of the rivers of the Kaliningrad region Gusev A.A., Guseva D.O. and Rudinskaya L.V. [40], 3 species of midges were identified: Wilhelmia eduina Linnaeus, W. lineata Mg., Simulium spp. Studies of midges in the territory of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region were carried out at different times by I.A. Rubtsov, Z.V. Usova, and S.V. Aibulatov. Thus, to date, 63 species of midges belonging to 17 genera have been recorded in the region, including such large ones as Cnetha, Eusimulium, Odagmia, Prosimulium, Schoenbaueria, and Simulium [8]. To date, midges are known in the region from 54 collection points. Rubtsov [3] noted 17 species from 10 genera without specifying collection points on the territory of the Leningrad Region: Cnephia pallipes Fries (Metacnephia pallipes Fries), C.meigeni Rubz. et Carlsson, Eusimulium angustipes Rubz., E. Aureum Rubz.,E. securiformeRubz., Hellichiella annae Rubz., H. annulus Lundstrom, Nevermannia latigonia Rubz., Prosimulium luganicum Rubz., Schoenbaueria subpusilla End., Simulium janzeni End., Sim. longipalpe Belt., Sim. paromorsitansSmart, Sim. rubzovi Smart, Sim. truncatum Lundstrom, Stegopternatrigonia Rubz., Wilhelmiaivashentzovi Rubz.

In the research of Z.V. Usov [41] devoted to midges of the Leningrad region, 48 species from 15 genera are noted. For the first time for the region Z.V. Usova notes 37 species: Archesimulium tumulosum Rubz., Arch. Tuberosum Lundstrom (Simulium tuberosum Lundstrom), Arch. Vulgare Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko (Simulium vulgare Dorog., Rubz. et Vlas.), Agentisimulium noelleri Rubz., Boophthora erythrocephala D. G., Cnetha beltukovae Rubz., C. bicorne Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko, C. cryophila Rubz., C .curvans Rubz. et Carlsson, C. kuznezovi Rubz., C. verna Rubz., Eusimulium argentipile Rubz., E. Silvaticum Rubz., Genus Nevermannia angustitarsis Lundstrom (Eusimulium angustutarsis Lund.), N. Lundstromi Rubz., Parabyssodon transiens Rubzov ( ByssodontransiensRubz .), Odagmia frigida Rubz., O. ornata Mg., O. Pratora Fried., O. rotundata Rubz., Prosimulium hirtipes Fries. (P. Hirtipes diminutum Rubz.), Schonbaueria pusilla Fries, Simulium abbreviatum Rubz., Sim. aemulumRubz., Sim. curvistylus Rubz., Sim. curvitarse Rubz., Sim. hibernale Rubz., Sim. morsitans End., Sim. Posticatum Rubz., Sim. promorsitans Rubz., Sim. reptans L., Sim. rostratum Lund., Sim. simulans Rubz., Sim. venustum Say, Stegopterna majalis Rubz. et Carlsson, and Wilhelmia eduina Linnaeus.

For the Moscow region, Vlasov S.V. [42] noted 29 species and 1 subspecies of midges belonging to 9 genera, of which 18 species and 1 subspecies for the first time. The midge fauna is represented by Stegopterna duodecimata Rubz., S. trigoni Lundström (Stegopterna richteri Enderlein), Cnephiapallipes End. (Astega lapponica End.), Byssodon maculates Mg., Parabyssodon transiens Rubz., Cnetha verna Macq.(Cnetha latipes Mg.), C. silvestris Rubz., Nevermannia angustitarsis Lundstrom, N. Latigonia Rubz., N. Volhynica Ussova et Pavl., Eusimulium aureum Fries, E. Angustipes Edw. (E. Latizonum Rubz.), Schonbaueria nigra Mg., Wilhelmia eguina Lannaeus, Boophthora chelevini Ivaschenko, B.erythrocephala D. G. (B. mihalyii Rubz., B. sericata Mg.), Odagmia frigid Rubz., O.intermedia Roubaud (O. nitidifrons Edw.), O. Ornate Mg., O. pratorum Fried., O. rotundata Rubz., Sim. sp. aff. venustum Say (Simulium verecundum St. Et Jamnb), Simulium posticatum Mg. (Simulium austeni Edw.), Sim. Reptans Linnaeus (Simulium galeratum Edwards), Simuliumjanzeni End., Sim. longipalpe Belt., Sim.morsitans Edw., Argentisimulium noelleri Fried (Simulium noelleri Fried), Arg. palustre Rubz., and Sim. truncatum Lundstrom.

According to Budaeva I.A. and Ruchina A.B. [43] information about the fauna of midges in the article is given for the first time as a result of research in 2009-2013 in Mordovia, 11 species of midges belonging to 8 genera were registered: Stegopterna trigoni Lundstrom, Wilhelmia balcanica End., W. eguina Lannaeus, Boreosimulium annulus Lundstrom, Byssodon maculatus Mg., Schoenbaueria nigra Mg., Boophthora erythrocephala D. G., Odagmia ornate Mg., O. pratora Fried., Argentisimulium noelleri Fried., and Sim. Paramorsitans Rubz.

The fauna of biting midges of the central Non-Black-Soil Zone region is represented by 15 species from 10 genera: Stegopterna trigoni Lundström (richteri Enderlein), Byssodon maculates Mg., Eusimulium aureum Fries, Schoenbaueria nigra Mg., Sch. Dendrofila Patrusheva, Wilhelmia eguina Lannaeus, Boophthora erythrocephala D. G., Odagmia ornate Mg., Simulium morsitans Edw., Argentisimulium noelleri Fried (Simuliumnoelleri Fried), Sim. Paramorsitans Rubz., Sim. Sp. Aff. Venustum Say (Simulium verecundum St. et Jamnb), Cnetha verna Macq.(Cnetha latipes Mg.),C. silvestris Rubz., Nevermannia angustitarsis Lundstrom (Chelocnetha angustitarse End.) [44].

The studies carried out by the authors Potapov A.A., Bogdanova E.N. and Vladimirova V.V. [45] in the Udora region of the Komi ASSR in the administrative district of the Komi Republic found 14 species belonging to 9 genera: Boophthora erythrocephala D. G., Parabyssodon transiens Rubzov (Byssodon transiens Rubz.), Cnetha verna Macquart (Eusimulim latipes Meigen), Gnus rostratum Lundstr, Odagmia frigid Rubz., O.ornata Mg., Schoenbaueria sp., Simulium rostratum Lundstrom (Simulium argyreatum Meigen), Sim. Reptans Linnaeus (Simulium galeratum Edwards), Sim.morsitans Edw., Sim. Venustum Say, Sim.vulgare Rubz., Cnephia sp., Wilhelmia eguina Lannaeus.

Bobrova S.I. [46], notes that studies of midges were carried out only in the southwestern part of Altai [47]. As a result of research on the fauna of midges in Altai, there are 33 species: Gymnopais rubzovi Bobr., Helodon alpestris Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko, (Prosimulium alpestre Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko), Ahaimophaga alpestre Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko (Prosimulium alpestre altaicum Rubz.), Prosimulium macropyga Lundstrom, P.zaitzevi Rubz. (Prosimulium macropyga zaitzevi Rubz.), P. hirtipes Fries.(Prosimulium hirtipes deminutum Rubz.), P. tridentatum Rubz., P. arshanense Rubz., Cnephia pallipes End. Metacnephia edwardsiana Rubz. (Cnephia edwardsiana Rubz.), M.aff. kirjanovi Rubz. (Cnephiaaff. Kirjanovi Rubz.), M. Multifilis Rubz. (Cnephia multifilis Rubz.), M.aff. tetraginata Rubz. (Cnephiaaff. Tetraginata Rubz.), Sulcicnephia ovtshinnikovi Rubz. (Cnephia ovtshinnikovi Rubz.), S. tungus Rubz. (Cnephia tungus Rubz.), Montisimulium schevjakovi Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko (Eusimulium schevjakovi comosum Rubz.), Cnetha verna Macquart (Eusimulim latipes Meigen), C. bicornis Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko (Eusimulimbicornis Dorogostajsky et Rubzov), C. curvans Rubz. Et Carlsson (Eusimulim. Curvans Rubz. Et Carlsson), E. Aureum Fries, Gnus malyschevi Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko, G. decimarum Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko, G. Cholodkovskii Rubz., G.rostratum Lundstr, Odagmiaornata Mg., Tetisimulium bezzi Corti, T. alajense Rubz., T. latimentumRubz., Archesimulium vulgare Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko (Simulium vulgare Rubz.), Argentisimulium palustre Rubz. (Simulium palustre Rubz.), and Sim.morsitans Edw.

 In the southwestern Altai, in the maral breeding farms of OAO Aksu (Aksu, JSC) and TOO Yongu-Abzal (Yongu-Abzal, LLP), on maral pastures, they are located on meadow-steppe and forest-meadow belts of mountains, which are characterized by harsh conditions. The study of midges was carried out in 2004-2007. Isimbekov Zh.M. and Modiev K.M. [48] identified 7 species: Archesimulium vulgare Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko, Argentisimulium noelleri Fried, Odagmia ornata Mg., Boophthora erythrocephala D. G., Cnetha verna Macquart, Sim. reptans Linnaeus, and Wilhelmia veltististshevi Rubz.

According to the results of research by Petrozhitskaya L.V. [49, 50] and literature data, midge fauna of Southern Altai currently includes 33 species of the genus Simulium from 7 subgenera.

For the basins of the Greater and Lesser Yenisei, which form the catchment area of the Upper Yenisei on the territory of Eastern Tuva, midges of 31 species from 5 genera were identified [51-53]. The variety of midges is represented by the following species: Gymnopais andrei Vorobets, G. trifistulatus Rubz., Helodon alpestris Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko, H. irkutensis Rubzov, H.mesenevi Patrusheva, Prosimulium arshanense Rubzov, P. hirtipes Frie, P. tridentatum Rubzov, P. candicans Rubzov, P. intercalare Rubzov, P. kolymense Patrusheva, P.pecticrassum Rubzov, Metacnephia amsheevi Usova et Bazarova, M. kirjanovae Rubzov, M.sommermannae Stone, Eusimulim longitarse Rubzov et Violovich, Nevermannia angustitarsis Lundstrom., N. longipes Rubzov, C. verna Macguart, Gnus cholodkovskii Rubzov, G. decimatum Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko, G.jacuticum Rubzov, G.malyschevi Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko, G.murmanum End., Odagmia ornate Mg., Sim. reptans Linnaeus, Archesimulium vulgare Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko, Simulium longipalpe Belt., Sim. rubzovi Smart, and Wilhelmia eguinum Linnaeus.

Research carried out by Dariychuk Z.S. [54] on the territory of the Kachugsky district of the Irkutsk region in May - October 1965, marked the beginning of the study of midges in the upper Lena. In Lena, such malicious bloodsuckers hatched as Sim. Reptans Linnaeus (Simulium galeratum Edwards), Prosimulium jacuticum Rubz., and Sim.morsitans Edw., the following 12 species are also noted: Eusimulim species gr. Latipes Mg., Eusimulim species gr. Aureum Fries, C. Bicornis Dorogostajsky, RubzovetVlasenko (Eusimulim bicornis Dorogostajsky et Rubzov), Odagmia ornate Mg., G.rostratum Lundstr, Archesimulium vulgare Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko (Simulium vulgare Rubz.), Sim. Rostratum Lundstrom (Simulium argyreatum Meigen), Argentisimulium noelleri Fried (Simulium noelleri Fried), Helodon alpestris Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko, (Prosimulium alpestre Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko), P. Candicans Rubz., Twinnia sedecimfistulata Rubz., Cnephia sp.

Gogolev V.B. [55] in the conditions of the Middle Volga region in the region of the Republic of Mari El revealed 11 species of biting midges of 5 genera: Byssodon maculatus Mg. (Titanopteryx maculates Meigen), Yrenieradogieli Ussova, Cnetha verna Macquart (Eusimulim latipesMeigen), C. silvestris Rubzov (Eusimulium silvestris Rubzov), C. Bicornis Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko (Eusimulim bicornis Dorogostajsky et Rubzov), Eusimulium aureum Fries, Schonbaueria pusilla Fries, Odagmia ornata Mg., Simulium longipalpe Belt., Sim. rostratum Lundstrom (Simulium argyreatum Meigen), and Sim. reptans Linnaeus (Simulium galeratum Edwards).

According to Budaeva I.A. and Silina A.E. (2013) the fauna and ecology of midges have not been previously studied in the Belgorod region. Carried out field works in 2007-2012 showed that 9 species of midges were found: Wilhelmia balcanica End., W. lineate Mg., Cnetha verna Macquart, Nevermannia angustitarsis Lundstrom., N.latigonia Rubz., Eusimulium angustipes Edw., Boophthora erythrocephala D. G., Odagmia ornata Mg., Argentisimulium noelleri Fried.

On the territory of the Caucasus region, the fauna was studied unevenly: the main part of the research was carried out at different times in the second half of the 20th century in Transcaucasia [56-58]. Rubtsov I.A. published information on the fauna of midges of the North Caucasus in short reports and general faunistic reports [3].

Currently, 22 species of midges belonging to 9 genera are found on the territory of Adygea: Prosimulium petrosum Rubz., P. Pronevitshae Rubz., P.tomosvaryi End., Wilhelmia balcanica End., W. Pseudeguina Seguy, Cnetha angustata Rubz., C. djafarovi Rubz., C. elata Rubz., C. fontia Rubz., C. geigelenais Djafarov, Cnetha verna Macquart, Nevermannia gomphocornis Rubz., Eusimulium aureum Fries, Obuchoviaadornata Rubz., Paragnusbukovskii Rubz., Odagmiabaracornis Smart, O. caucasica Rubz., O. fantana Terteryan, O. Monticola Fried., O.monticoloides Rubz., O. ornata Mg., and Simulium tarnogradskii Rubz.

Research carried out by Dementiev M.S. [59] showed that in the period 1985-2012 in fish farms and water bodies of the Central Ciscaucasia, starting from the Elbrus region to the water bodies of the Kuma-Manych depression and including the territories of the Stavropol Territory, Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia, Kalmykia, Ingushetia and Chechnya, 40 species of midges were noted: Prosimulium gigas Rubz., P. Petrosum Rubz., P.rachiliense Djafarov, Boophthora erythrocephala De Geer, Byssodon maculatus Mg., Eusimilium angustipes Edwards, E. aureum Rubzov, E. maritimim Rubzov, E. sivaticum Rubzov, C. verna Macguart, Schoenbaueria nigra Mg., Montisimulium alizadei Djafarov, M. montium Rubzov, Wilhelmia angustifurca Rubzov, W. balcanicum Enderlein, W.dahestanicum Rubzov, W.eguina Linnaeus, W. lineatum Mg., Nevermannia angustitarsis Lundstrom, N. gomphocorne Rubzov, N. lundstromi End., Cnetha coctata Friedrichs (Nevermannia coctata Friedrichs), C.cryophilum Rubzov, C. elata Rubzov, C. fontia Rubzov, C. verna Macguart, Obuchovia adarnata Rubzov, Odagmia baracornis Smart (Simulium baracornis Smart), O. fontana Terteryan (Simulium fontana Terteryan), O. monticola Friederichs (Simulium monticola Friederichs), O. monticoloides Rubzov, O. variegate Meigen, O. ornata Meigen, O.schamili Rubzov, Tetisimulium bezzi Corti, Simulium longipalpe Beltukova, Sim. tarnogradskii Rubzov, Sim. morsitans Edwards, Sim. paramorsitans Rubzov, Sim. shevtshenkovae Rubzov, Sim. simulans Rubzov, and Argentisimulium noelleri Fried.

Alania National Park (NPA) is located on the northern slope of the Central Caucasus in the Urukh River basin; for the first time, information about its freshwater entomofauna is given by Khazeeva L.A. [60] — 2 species of midges were identified: Odagmia ornata Mg., O.caucasicum Rubz.

In the Voronezh region, among the most active hematophagous species, we should mention: Byssodon maculatus Mg., Schoenbaueria nigra Mg., Simulium morsitans Edw., Sim. paramorsitans Rubz.

Midge observations on the Crimean Peninsula were carried out from 1969 to 2006. As a result of research by Panchenko A.A. [61]   32 species of midges were identified: P. petrosum Rubzov, P.rufipes Meigen, C. verna Macguart (Cnetha latipes Meigen, C. brevidens Rubzov, C. chodakovi Panchenko, C. fontia Rubzov, C. gejgelense Djafarov, C. angustata Rubzov, C. tauricum Rubzov, C. karajimae Panchenko, W. angustifurca Rubzov, W. balcanica Enderlein, W. paraeguina Puri, W. pseudeguina Seguy, W. veltistshevi Rubzov, N. lundstrami Rubzov, N. angustitarsis Lundstrom (Eusimulium angustitarsis Lundstrom), N. volhynica Ussova et Pavlov, E. aureum Rubzov, E.angustipes Edwards (Eusimulium latizonum Rubzov), E. velutinum Santos Abreu, E.krymense Rubzov, Obuchovia auricoma Meigen, O. brevifilis Rubzov, O. karasuae Panchenko, Paragnus bukovskii Rubzov, Odagmia pratora Fried, O. ornata Meigen, O. baracornis Smart, O. trifasciatum Curtis, Arg. Noelleri Fried (Simulium noelleri Fried), Sim. lugense Yankovsky, and Byssodon maculatus Meigen (Titanopteryx macularus Meigen).

Research was carried out in areas remote from large rivers (Ob and Irtysh): in 1960 — in the Zonovo village, in 1962 — in Karasuk, in 1964 near Novosibirsk, also in the Maslyansky and Ordynsky districts of the Novosibirsk region, in 1964 near Novosibirsk. The Novosibirsk region is represented by the following types: Cnetha meigeni Rubzov et Carlsson (Eusimulim pygmaeum Ztterstedt sensy Rubzov), Cnephia species, Byssodon maculatus Meigen (Titanopteryx macularus Meigen), Sch. pusilla Fries., Eusimulium aureum Rubzov, E.angustipes Edwards, E. silvaticum Rubzov, E. latipes Meigen, B.erythrocephala De Geer, Sim. morsitans Edwards, Sim.longipalpe Beltucivae, Sim. rostratum Lundström (Simuluim argyreatum Meigen), Sim. reptans Linnaeus (Simulium galeratum Edwards), Sim. aemulum Rubzov, Odagmia. ornata Meigen, O. frigida Rubzov, Parabyssodon transiens Rubzov (Byssodon transiens Rubz.), Arg. noelleri Fried (Simulium noelleri Fried), Simulium vulgare Rubzov.

Very little is known about the species composition of midges in the Tomsk region. In the studies of V.M. Popov [62] on the Tomsk region, 8 species of biting midges are given: T. maculata Mg., C. verna Macguart (Cnetha latipes Meigen), E. aureum Rubzov, Sim. venustumSay (Simulium verecundum St. et Jamnb), Sim. reptans Linnaeus, Sim. Tuberosum Lund, Sim. morsitans Edwards, and Sch. pusilla Fries. In the Aleksandrovsky district of the Tomsk region, Dariychuk Z.S. [63] notes 7 species including 3 species are listed for the first time: B.erythrocephala De Geer, C. verna Macguart, E. aureum Rubzov. V.D. Patrusheva [7], notes the following species for the Tomsk region: Byssodon maculatus Meigen (Titanopteryx macularus Meigen), Sim. morsitans Edwards, Sim.longipalpe Beltucivae, Sim. rostratum Lundström (Simuluim argyreatum Meigen), Sch. Rangiferina Rubzov, N. Angustitarsis Lundstrom (Eusimulium angustitarsis Lundstrom), O. ornata Meigen, Sim. reptans Linnaeus (Simulium galeratum Edwards).

In various areas of the basin of the Yana and Lena, according to the carried out research, Vorobets E.I. [43], 59 species of midges belonging to 18 genera were registered, of which 29 species are recorded for the first time in Yakutia: Gymnopais trifistulatus Rubzov, Prosimulium candicans Rubzov, P.erythronotum Rubzov, P. hirtipes Fries (Prosimulium hirtipes diminutum Rubzov), P. macropyga Lundstrom, P. irkutense Rubzov, P. jacuticum Rubzov, Helodon rubicundus Rubzov, H. alpestris Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko (Prosimulium alpestri Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko), H. czekanowskii Rubzov (Prosimulium czekanowskii Rubzov), H. Rhizomorphus Rubzov (Prosimulium rhizomorphus Rubzov), Stegopterna asema Rubzov, S.majalis Rubzov et Carlsson, S. dentata Rubzov et Carlsson, S. decafilis Rubzov, Cnephia pallipes Fries (Cnephia pallipes Enderlein), Metacnephia saileri Stone (Metacnephia pallipes Fries), M. trigoniformis Yankovsky (Metacnephia trigonium Lunstrom), and M.taimyrica Patrusheva,

Sulcicnephia tungus Rubzov, Byssodon maculatus Meigen (Byssodon maculates lenae Rubzov), Eusimulium aureum Rubzov, Cnetha chomustachi Worobez (Gomphostilbia chomustachi Worobez), Schoenbaueria rangiferina Rubzov, Sch. pusilla Fries, Sch. subpusilla Rubzov, Sch. brachyarthra Rubzov, Sch. gigantea Rubzov (Hemicnetha gigantea Rubzov), Cnetha verna Macguart (Cnetha latipes Meigen), C.silvesris Rubzov, C.bicornis Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko, C.pugetensis Dyar et Shannon (Eusimulium longipile Rubzov), C. curvans Rubzov et Carlsson, Hellichiella baffinensis Twinn (Cnetha baffinensis Twinn), Archesimulium tuberosum Lunstrom (Simulim tuberosum Lunstrom), Arch. vulgare Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko (Simulim vulgare Rubzov), Simulium venustum Say, Sim. trucatum Lunstrom, Sim. posticatum Meigen (Simulium austeni Edwards), Sim. morsitans Edwards, Sim. paramorsitans Rubzov, Sim.longipalpe Beltucovae, Sim. aemulum Rubzov, Sim. rubzovi Smart, Sim. rostratum Lundström (Simuluim argyreatum Meigen), Sim. venustum Say (Simulium verecundum St. et Jamnb), Sim. sp., Boophthora erythrocephala De Geer, Gnus malyschevi Rubzov, G. jacuticum Rubzov, G. decimarum Dorogostajsky, Rubzov et Vlasenko, G. cholodkovskii Rubzov, G. pavlovskii Rubzov, G. rostratum Lundstrom, G. subvariegarum Rubzov, G. nakojapi Smart, and Parabyssodon transiens Rubzov.

Aibulatov S.V. [44] analyzed literature, collected, and field data on fauna and supplemented two species for the region: Cnephia angarensis Rubzov and Gymnopais frontatus Yankovsky. Research conducted by Barashkova A.I. [45] of the basins of the Lena, Vilyui, and Kolyma rivers of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) note 12 species.

The diversity of the midge fauna on the territory of Kunashir, the southernmost of the islands of the Greater Kuril Ridge, is small — 3 species of midges of 3 genera were found here: Cnetha spp., Gomphostilbia makartshenkovi Bodrova, Odagmia nishijimai Ono. [28].

CONCLUSION

To date, the topic is relevant and requires further research because these blood-sucking Diptera are carriers of several infectious and parasitic diseases in humans and animals.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: None

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None

FINANCIAL SUPPORT: The article was prepared in accordance with the research plan for the program of fundamental scientific research of the Russian Academy of Sciences (No. 121042000066-6 “Study and analysis of the epizootic state of diseases of invasive etiology of agricultural and unproductive animals, bees and birds, changes in the species composition and bioecological patterns of the development cycle of parasites in conditions of displacement of boundaries their ranges)

The research was funded by RFBR and Tyumen Region, number 20-416-720002.

ETHICS STATEMENT: The study was conducted in accordance with international ethical standards.


References

1.       Markovich NY. Biota response to climate warming in Europe. Med Parasitol Parasite Dis. 2003;4:23-6.

2.       Yasyukevich VV. Impact of climate change on the spread of malaria in the Russian Federation. Med Parasitol Parasit Dis.  2003;4:27-33.

3.       Rubtsov IA. Midges (family Simuliidae). Fauna of the USSR. Diptera. M.; L., 1956;6(6):680.

4.       Yurtsev BA. Monitoring of biodiversity at the level of local floras. Bot J. 1997;82(6):60-9.

5.       Yankovsky V. Key to midges (Diptera, Simuliidae) of Russia and adjacent territories (former USSR).  St. Petersburg; 2002. 570 p.

6.       Rubtsov IA. A brief guide to blood-sucking midges of the fauna of the USSR. Leningrd; 1962. 228 p.

7.       Domatsky V, Fedorova OA, Siben AN. Epizootological and epidemiological significance of blood-sucking dipteran insects in the Far North (review). Russ J Parasitol. 2018;12(4):73-6. doi:10.31016/1998-8435-2018-12-4-73-76

8.       Kaplich VM, Zinovieva OE, Sukhomlin EB. On biological regulators of the number of blood-sucking midges (Diptera: simuliidae) in the watercourses of the Central non-Chernozem zone of Russia. Ecol wildl. 2019;(1):9-14.

9.       Bukshtynov VI. Fauna and ecology of blood-sucking dipterous insects in the south of the Tyumen region. Probl vet sanitation: Tr. VNIIVS. 1966;23:309-19.

10.   Mitrokhin VU. Blood-sucking midges (family Simuliide) in the south of the Tyumen region. Vopr vet arachno-entomol Tyumen. 1969;(1):120-7.

11.   Mitrokhin VU. Distribution and ecology of midge larvae (family Simuliide) in the water bodies of the Ob and Irtysh, Vopr. vet arachno-entomol and vet sanitation Tyumen. 1972;4:22-36.

12.   Mitrokhin VU. Blood-sucking midges (family Simuliidae) of the Northern Trans-Urals: Abstract of the thesis. thesis ... Dr. Biol. Sciences. L.; 1974. 38p.

13.   Pavlova RP, Khlyzova TA, Fedorova OA, Cherednikov AI, Latkin SV. Species composition of blood-sucking mosquitoes and midges in the south of the Tyumen region. Russ J Parasitol. 2011;4:41-6.

14.   Ishmuratov IN. Diptera blood-sucking insects of the Khanty-Mansiysk national district and features of their attack on fur-bearing animals in cages. Probl vet sanitation: Tr. VNIIVS. T. 1968;31:23-9.

15.   Novitskaya SA. To the study of the fauna of the number of blood-sucking midges and the biological rationale for their control in the oil and gas regions of the Tyumen region. Problems of the fight against midges (Reports of the workshop of the Central Research Institute for March 11-14, 1969); 1970. 26-31p.

16.   Zinovieva OE. About blood-sucking midges (Diptera: Simuliidae) on the territory of the russian federation. Vet Anim Sci Biotechnol. 2018:60-5.

17.   Zavyalov EG. Diptera bloodsucking insects on pastures of the Middle Ob region. Mater on veterinary arachno – entomology and vet. sanitation: The results of scientific – proc. Conf.  Tyumen. 1971;(3):32-5.

18.   Kerbabaev EB, Novitskaya SA, Machavariani NA. New species of midges (Diptera, Simuliidae) of Georgia. The study of midges in the Middle Ob region and the larvicidal action of metathion. Mater Fauna Georgia. 1966;(1):193-6.

19.   Shchepetkin VA. Blood-sucking dipterans and gadflies of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug of the Tyumen region and measures to protect reindeer from them: Abstract of the thesis. dis... cand vet Sci. 1974. 26.

20.   Boldarueva LV. Midges (Diptera, Simuliidae) of the moss-lichen tundra of Yamal. [Useful and harmful insects of Siberia]. Academy of Sciences of the USSR SO, BIN. Novosibirsk: Nauka; 1982. 180-4p.

21.   Petrozhitskaya LV. Midges of the northern forest-tundra of Yamal. Ecology and geography of arthropods of Siberia. Novosibirsk: Nauka; 1987. 251-3p.

22.   Mezenev NP, Patrusheva VD. About midges (Diptera, Simuliidae) of the Taimyr National District. Parasitology. 1970;1:74-81.

23.   Usova ZV. Fauna of midges of Karelia and the Murmansk region (Diptera, Simuliidae). - M. - L.: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR; 1961. 286 p.

24.   Sharkov AA, Lobkova MP, Usova ZV. Blood-sucking mosquitoes (family Culicidae) and mosquitoes (Simuliidae) of the European north of the USSR. Petrozavodsk; 1984. 151 p.

25.   Yankovsky AV. Midges (Diptera, Simuliidae) of the Lapland State Biosphere Reserve and descriptions of a new species of Argentisimulium. Entomological Review. 2006;83(1):226-34.

26.   Ivantsova EA. The influence of environmental factors on populations of dipteran insects of the family. Simuliidae. Results and prospects for the development of the agro-industrial complex: Collection of materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference, p. Solenoe Zaimishche, May 21–22, 2020. - With. Solenoe Zaimishche: FGBNU "Caspian Agrarian Federal Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences"; 2020. 479-82 p. doi:10.26150/PAFNC.2019.45.557-21-479-482

27.   Radzivilovskaya ZA. On the ecology of larvae and pupae of midges (Simuliidae) in the mountain regions of the South Ussuri taiga. Parasitol Sat Zool. in-ta ANSSSR. - L. 1950;(12):199-204.

28.   Bobrova SI. Midges (Simuliidae) of Altai: Abstract of the thesis. dis... Cand Biol Sci  Perm; 1967. 20 p.

29.   Gusav AA, Guseva OD, Rudinskaya LV. Preliminary results of the study of the zoobenthos of the pre-estuary sections of some rivers of the Kaliningrad region. Samarskaya Luka: Probl Reg  Glob Ecol.  2014;23(2):61-71.

30.   Budaeva IA, Ruchin AB. To the fauna of midges (Diptera, Simuliidae) of the Republic of Mordovia (Russia). Cau Entomol Bull. 2014;10(1):155-9.

31.   Fedorova OA, Sivkova EI, Serkova MI. Dynamics of daily activity of various types of blood-sucking midges in the south of the Tyumen region. Bull Russ Agric Sci.  2021;2:64-6. doi:10.30850/vrsn/2021/2/64-66

32.   Isimbekov ZM, Madieva KM. Species composition, numerical ratio and landscape confinement of blood-sucking dipterous insects in the southwestern Altai. Bull Altai State Agrar Univ. 2008;6(44):39-43.

33.   Denisov AA, Ivantsova EA, Kholodenko AV, Zaliznyak EA. Fauna and distribution of blood-sucking midges of the Simuliidae family on the territory of Russia. Nat Syst Resource. 2018;8(4):38-47. doi:10.15688/nsr.jvolsu.2018.4.5

34.   Petrozhitskaya LV. New data on the fauna of midges (Diptera, Simuliidae) of the Southern Altai (East Kazakhstan). Eur Entomol Mag. 2012;11(5):488-92.

35.   Taratutina MN, Zubareva OV, Romasova EI, Melnikova GF. On the issue of combating blood-sucking dipterans during the preparation and holding of a mass event in Volgograd. Pop Health Habitat - ZNiSO. 2023;31(1):60-6. doi:10.35627/2219-5238/2023-31-1-60-66

36.   Gogolev VB. Blood-sucking Diptera of the Middle Volga region (bioecological features, veterinary significance, protection of farm animals): Abstract of the thesis. dis ... Dr. Vet Sci. Tyumen; 2001. 35.

37.   Budaeva IA, Silina AE. To the study of the fauna and ecology of midges (Diptera, Simuliidae) of the Belgorod region. Modern problems of zoology and parasitology. Materials of the V Intern. scientific Conf. "Reading the memory of prof. I.I. Barabash-Nikiforov". 2013:20-5.

38.   Gorbatkova MA, Bespalova NS. Anaplasmosis of domestic ruminants. Control and prevention measures. Scientific review. Pedagog Sci. 2019;2-4:14-6.

39.   Terteryan AE. Midges (family Simuliidae) (Fauna of the Armenian SSR). Yerevan. 1968. 272 p.

40.   Rubtsov IA. Midges (family Simuliidae). Fauna of the USSR. Diptera, 6, 6. M. - L.: Ed. Academy of Sciences of the USSR; 1940. 1-535.

41.   Dementiev MS. Biodiversity of midges (Simuliidae) of the Central Ciscaucasia and adjacent mountainous areas. Parasitology. 2014;4(24):25-8.

42.   Khazeeva LA. Freshwater invertebrates of the reservoirs of the Urukh River in the territory of the National Park "Alania" (Basin of the Terek River). Problems of water entomology in Russia and neighboring countries; 2016. 184-95p.

43.   Vorobets EI. Midges (Diptera, Simuliidae) of the plains and foothills of Yakutia: Abstract of the thesis. dis... cand biol Sci. Novosibirsk; 1979. 21p.

44.   Aibulatov SV, Baryshev IA. On the fauna of midges (Diptera, Simuliidae) of Karelia and the Murmansk region. Problems of entomology in Russia and neighboring countries; 2016. 8-12pp.

45.   Barashkova AI. Blood-sucking dipterous insects (Incecta, Diptera: Tabanidae, Culucidae, Simuliidae) of the Agrocenoses of Yakutia: Dis...D.B.S. - Yakutsk, 2016. 256p.

46.   Vlasov SV. Fauna and ecology of midges (Diptera, Simuliidae) of the Moscow region: dis. Ph.D. 03.00.08. Moscow; 1997. 20p.

47.   Burova OA, Zakharova OI, Toropova NN. The effectiveness of methods for catching insects - vectors-carriers of vector-borne animal diseases and their species composition. Agrar Sci Euro-North-East. 2021;22(5):761-9. doi:10.30766/2072-9081.2021.22.5.761-769

48.   Krutko KS, Kinareikina AG, Serkova MI. Identification of genetic material of pathogens of viral animal diseases in blood-sucking dipteran insects of the Tyumen region. Russ J Parasitol. 2022;16(4):389-402. doi:10.31016/1998-8435-2022-16-4-389-402

49.   Palatov DM. New data on the fauna of freshwater invertebrates of Kunashir Island. Read Mem Vlad. 2014;(6):509-22.

50.   Patrusheva VD, Polyakov PE. On the fauna and ecology of Yakovlevich Levanilov midges in the Lower Ob region. Izv. Sib. otd. Acad Sci USSR. 1965;1(4):143-5.

51.   Patrusheva VD. Blood-sucking midges of the Ob region. Results of the study on the problem of combating midges. Novosibirsk; 1967. 103-9pp.

52.   Patrusheva VD. About midges (Diptera, Simuliidae) of South Yamal. Parasitology. 1974;2:138-46.

53.   Patrusheva VD, Korshunov YP, Shchepetkin VA. To the fauna of midges (Diptera, Simuliidae) of the Polar Urals. Fauna of helminths and arthropods of Siberia. Novosibirsk; 1976. 291-300pp.

54.   Patrusheva VD. New species of midges of the genus MetacnephiaGrasskey (Diptera, Simuliidae) from Yamal and Taimyr. News of the fauna of Siberia. Novosibirsk. 1976a. 162-7.

55.   Patrusheva VD. On the morphology and systematic position of Schonbaueriadendrofila (Diptera, Simuliidae) (Patr.). Taxons of the fauna of Siberia. Novosibirsk; 1976b. 160-4pp.

56.   Petrozhitskaya LV. Comparative analysis of the species composition and activity of midges in the Todzha basin of Tuva. Blood-sucking Diptera and their control. L.: ZIN AN SSSR;  1987. 107-10pp.

57.   Petrozhitskaya LV, Rodkina VI, Zaika VV. Species diversity and community structure of midges (Diptera, Simuliidae) in the watercourses of the central and southern regions of Tuva. Natural conditions, history and culture of Western Mongolia and adjacent regions: Proceedings of the VII International Conference, Kyzyl. Kyzyl: TuviKOPR SO RAN; 2005. 231-5pp.

58.   Petrozhitskaya LV. Spatial and typological characteristics of midge communities (Diptera, Simuliidae) of Eastern Tuva. Eurasian Entomol Mag. 2013;12(5):506-14.

59.   Potapov AA, Bogdanova EN, Vladimirova VV. Fauna, seasonal and daily course of activity of blood-sucking dipterous insects in the Udora region of the Komi ASSR. Med Parasitol. 1972;41(1):21-5.

60.   Khumala AE, Field AV. To the insect fauna of the south-east of Karelia. Tr. Karelian scientific. Cent Russ Acad Sci. 2009;4:53-75.

61.   Panchenko AA. Midges (Díptera, Simuliidae) of the basin of the small river Karatysh (Ukraine). Mat. I Vseros. confer. by blood-sucking insects. St. Petersburg; 2006. 154-6pp.

62.   Popov  VM. Blod-sucking ticks and  insects of Popov V.M. Blood-sucking ticks and insects of Western Siberia and their significance in the epidemiology of diseases with natural focality. Issues of regional pathology, phytoncides and the production of bacterial preparations. Tomsk;1953. 45-61pp.

63.   Dariychuk ZS. On the fauna and ecology of midges (Simuliidae) of the upper Lena River basin. Results of the issl. On probl. fight against the midge. Novosibirsk: Nauka; 1967. 110-3pp.


 


Entomology and Applied Science Letters is an international double-blind peer reviewed publication which publishes scientific research & review articles related to insects that contain information of interest to a wider audience, e.g. papers bearing on the theoretical, genetic, agricultural, medical and biodiversity issues. Emphasis is also placed on the selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance. In addition to full-length research articles and reviews, the journal publishes interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, and Letters to the Editor. The journal publishes reports on all phases of medical entomology and medical acarology, including the systematics and biology of insects, acarines, and other arthropods of public health and veterinary significance.

Announcement and Advertisement
Announcements regarding scientific activities such as conferences, symposium, are published for free. Advertisements can be either published or placed on website as banners.
open access
Entomology and Applied Science Letters supports the submission of entomological papers that contain information of interest to a wider reader groups e. g. papers bearing on taxonomy, phylogeny, biodiversity, ecology, systematic, agriculture, morphology. The selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance is also important. Distinguished entomologists drawn from different parts of the world serve as honorary members of the Editorial Board. The journal encompasses all the varied aspects of entomological research.