Creative Commons License 2016 Volume 3 Issue 6

Study on serum macro-mineral concentrations in Kurdish horses and indigenous Mules

Ruhollah Dorostkar, Mohammad Sadegh Hashemzadeh, Shaghayegh Nemati, Majddin Ghalavand, Siamak Asri-Rezaei, Alaa Ghaderi, Afshin Fatehi, Aligholi Ramin, Pedram Yaghmaei

Serum biochemical parameters are used for the healthy and diseases status in equines. Interpretation is based on breed of horse, age group and some limits of physiological blood parameters. Determination of serum macromineral concentrations and their interrelationships based on spices, gender and age variations in Urmia equines, Iran. Ten ml jugular blood was prepared from 78 Kurdish horses and 22 indigenous mules aged up to 21 years old. Serum calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and chloride was evaluated by current laboratory methods. The mineral concentrations between mules and horses statistically were not significant. With the exception of phosphorus and sodium, the mean concentrations in stallions were greater than in mares, but only calcium concentration in mares were lower than in stallions (P<0.01). The lowest concentrations for minerals were in equines from 7 to 21years old except for magnesium which was 1-6 years old. The age differences for minerals were not significant except for magnesium which were close to significant difference (P<0.07). There were correlations between minerals mainly calcium/magnesium, sodium/chloride, potassium/chloride concentrations. The correlations between calcium/magnesium, sodium /chloride were stronger and higher than others. The concentration of minerals in Urmia equines was normal and not influence by species, gender and age, except for calcium which was low in mares at upper ages and magnesium in lower ages. The correlations among minerals reveal their close cooperation in the physiology of equine body. Therefore, Urmia equines did not show mineral deficiency, but adult mares were probably susceptible to calcium deficiency and magnesium in lower ages.


Keywords: Macro-minerals, Age, Gender, Species, Horse, Mule


Grace N.D., Pearce S.G., Firth E.C. and FennessyY.P.F. Aust. Vet. J, 2008. 43:p. 45-52.

Galik B., Biro D., Halo M., Juracek M., Simko M., Massanyi P. and Rolinec M. Acta Vet. Brno, 2012. 81: p. 113-117.

Biricik H. and Ocal N. J. Equine Vet. Sci, 2005. 25:p. 346-348.

Miknienė Z., Maslauskas K., Kerzienė S., Kučinskienė J. and Kučinskas A. Vet. Med. Zoot, 2014. 65: p. 13-19.

Hansen S.L., Schlegel P., Legleiter L.R., Lloyd K.E. and Spears J.W. J. Anim. Sci, 2008. 86: p. 173–179.

Radostits O.M., Blood D.C. and Henderson J.A. Veterinary Medicine. 8th Edn, Bailliere & Tindall Publication, Ltd., London, pp. 1450-1452, 2007.

Baban M., Domaćinović M., Sakač M., Budimir K., Antunović B. and Mijić P. Krmiva, 2011. 53: p. 47-52.

Nieto J.E., Maher O., Stanley S.D., Knych H.K. and Snyder J.R. American J. Vet. Res, 2013. 74: p. 550-556.

Bazzano M., Giudice E., Giannetto C., Fazio F., Scollo C. and Piccione G. Arch. Anim. Breed, 2016. 59: p. 65–70.

Toribio R.E., Kohn C.W., Rourke K.M., Levine A.L. and Rosol T.J. Am. J. Vet. Res, 2007. 68: p. 543-554.

Silva F.S., Melo S.K.M., Manso H.E.C., Abreu J.M.G., Manso H.C. Comp. Exercise Physiol, 2014. 10: p. 105– 111.

Aoki T. and Ishii M. J. Equi. Vet. Sci, 2012. 32: p.170–176.

Durie L., van Loon G., Hesta M., Bauvens C. and Deprez P. J. Vet. Int. Med, 2010. 24: p. 439-442.

Stewart A.J., Hardy J., Kohn C.W., Toribio R.E., Hinchcliff K.W. and Silver B. Am. J. Vet. Res, 2004. 65: p. 422–430.

Garcia L.G.M., Provost P.J., Rush J.E., Zicker S.C., Burmaster H. and Freeman L.M. Am. J. Vet. Res, 2001. 62: p.7-12.

Ahmed M., Kamr D., Katarzyna A., Reed S.M. and Slovis N.M. PLOS ONE. 2015. p. 44-49.

Yousef M.A., El-khodery S.A. and Ibrahim H.M. Bio. Trace Ele. Res, 2012. P.150: 123-129.

Bigras P.M. and Tremblay A. Pre. Vet. Med, 1998. p. 135: 195-207.

Blanco P.I., Cruz J.M., López-Alonso M., Miranda M. and Castillo C. Env. Int, 2006. 32: p. 901-906.

Samia M., Bouabdellah B. and Miloud H. Global Vet, 2013. 10:p. 520-523.

Lopez I., Estepa J.C., Mendoza F.J., Rodriguez M. and Aguilera-Tejero E. Am. J. Vet. Res,2006. 67: p. 1333-1336.

Santos S.A., Silva R.A., Azevedo J.R., Mello M.A., Soares A.C. and Sibuya C.Y. Arques Brazilian Med. Vet. Zootecnol, 2001. 53: p.45-52.

Hassan H.Y., Aly M.A., Lseady Y.M., Nayel M.A., Elsify A.M., Salama A.A., Hassan M.S., Elbarody E.F. and Kamar A.B. Alexandria J. Vet. Sci, AJVS. 2015. 46: p.161-169.

Tobey S.L. and Anslyn E.V. Organization. Letters, 2003. 5: p. 2029–2031.

Sevinga M., Barkema H.W. and Hesselink J.W. Theriogenology, 2002. 57: p.941–947.

Weiss D., Burger D., Weishaupt M.A., Fakler A., Spichiger J.E. and Giese L. J. Equine Vet. Sci, 2002. 22: p. 77-83.

Bamford N.J., Rosales CM, Williamson A.J., Steel C.M. and Tennent-Brown B.S. Eqiune Vet. Edu, 2016.

McGowan C.M., Dugdale, A.H., Pinchbeck G.L. and Argo M.G. Vet. J, 2013. 196: p.153–159.

Santiago, T.A., Manso, H.E.C, Abreu, J.M.G. et al. Comp Clin Pathol, 2014. 23: p. 769.

Nielsen F.H. and Lukaski H.C. Mg. Res, 2006. 19: p.180-189.

Amaral L.A., Marchiori M., Martins C.F., Correa M.N. and Nogueira C.E.W. Pesquisa Vet. Brasileira, 2013. 33: p.35-42.

Murase H., Sakai S., Kusano K., Hobo S. and Nambo Y. J. Vet. Med. Sci, 2013. 75: p. 37–41 .

Sema Y., Gurgoze P. and Icen H. J. Equine Vet. Sci, 2010. 30: p. 569-574.

Massanyi P., Stawarz R., Halo M., Formicki G. and Lukac N. J. Env. Sci. Health, 2014. 49: p. 345-352.

Entomology and Applied Science Letters is an international double-blind peer reviewed publication which publishes scientific research & review articles related to insects that contain information of interest to a wider audience, e.g. papers bearing on the theoretical, genetic, agricultural, medical and biodiversity issues. Emphasis is also placed on the selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance. In addition to full-length research articles and reviews, the journal publishes interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, and Letters to the Editor. The journal publishes reports on all phases of medical entomology and medical acarology, including the systematics and biology of insects, acarines, and other arthropods of public health and veterinary significance.

Announcement and Advertisement
Announcements regarding scientific activities such as conferences, symposium, are published for free. Advertisements can be either published or placed on website as banners.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IPS) , University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore Pakistan.
open access
Entomology and Applied Science Letters supports the submission of entomological papers that contain information of interest to a wider reader groups e. g. papers bearing on taxonomy, phylogeny, biodiversity, ecology, systematic, agriculture, morphology. The selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance is also important. Distinguished entomologists drawn from different parts of the world serve as honorary members of the Editorial Board. The journal encompasses all the varied aspects of entomological research.