2022 Volume 9 Issue 1

Identification and Prioritization Technologies and Types of Threats in Future Warfare Using Future Studies Approach


Masood Taheri Mirghaed, Mazyar Karamaali, Mohammadkarim Bahadori, Mohsen Abbasi
Abstract

The main mission of military medicine in the world is the health, relief, treatment, and rehabilitation support for the military people regarding the problems, dangers, injuries, and diseases because of special occupational conditions. The present study was descriptive in terms of the purpose of the survey type and mixed-method in terms of the research process. The study was conducted in two parts. The first part was a systematic review and extraction of required data in the field of science and technology associated with the fields of personal medicine, hyperspace health, cognitive health, and biodefense. In the second step, the related sciences and technologies and the strengths and weaknesses of the areas stated in the tables were prepared using the information extracted from papers and documents, and then the interview guide was formed and provided to experts in different fields and their opinions were collected. What emerges from the observation of the policies of science, technology, and defense products is the focus of the countries of the world on policy-making in influential sciences, which can turn the latest findings of those sciences into defense technologies and products and bring about technology and ensure deterrence at the strategic level.


How to cite this article
Vancouver
Mirghaed M T, Karamaali M, Bahadori M, Abbasi M. Identification and Prioritization Technologies and Types of Threats in Future Warfare Using Future Studies Approach. Entomol Appl Sci Lett. 2022;9(1):7-19. https://doi.org/10.51847/xsFMn9Tl1P
APA
Mirghaed, M. T., Karamaali, M., Bahadori, M., & Abbasi, M. (2022). Identification and Prioritization Technologies and Types of Threats in Future Warfare Using Future Studies Approach. Entomology and Applied Science Letters, 9(1),7-19. https://doi.org/10.51847/xsFMn9Tl1P

Identification and Prioritization Technologies and Types of Threats in Future Warfare Using Future Studies Approach

Masood Taheri Mirghaed1, Mazyar Karamaali2*, Mohammadkarim Bahadori2, Mohsen Abbasi2

 

1 Department of Health Services Administration, School of Health Services Management and Medical Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


ABSTRACT

The main mission of military medicine in the world is the health, relief, treatment, and rehabilitation support for the military people regarding the problems, dangers, injuries, and diseases because of special occupational conditions. The present study was descriptive in terms of the purpose of the survey type and mixed-method in terms of the research process. The study was conducted in two parts. The first part was a systematic review and extraction of required data in the field of science and technology associated with the fields of personal medicine, hyperspace health, cognitive health, and biodefense. In the second step, the related sciences and technologies and the strengths and weaknesses of the areas stated in the tables were prepared using the information extracted from papers and documents, and then the interview guide was formed and provided to experts in different fields and their opinions were collected. What emerges from the observation of the policies of science, technology, and defense products is the focus of the countries of the world on policy-making in influential sciences, which can turn the latest findings of those sciences into defense technologies and products and bring about technology and ensure deterrence at the strategic level.

Keywords: Future studies, Military medicine, Health information, War scene


INTRODUCTION

 

Military medicine is a science concerned with diseases and injuries happening during military operations. Moreover, it involves special forms of organizing that have emerged to provide medical support to the military and the rapid transfer and treatment of patients during battle [1, 2]. The main mission of military medicine in the world is health, relief, treatment, and rehabilitation support of the military in problems, risks, injuries, and diseases that occur because of special occupational conditions [3]. Ultimately, military medicine services bring about the maintenance of military health and, while promoting health, increased military capability in their missions. As the weapons used in the battle became more destructive and deadly, medical care progressed accordingly, and thus, wounded soldiers became more and more treatable [4]. Ultimately, military medicine services result in the maintenance of military health and, while increasing military capability in their missions promotes health [5]. A military health system is a set of people, structures, and processes that work for maintaining and promoting the health of the military community [6, 7]. The military health system is like a health care delivery organization with two main missions: a combat readiness mission to provide medical, health, and support services to military operations units, and a service-oriented mission to provide medical, health, and support services to troops. Armed persons, retirees, affiliated members and the other is a service-oriented mission to provide medical, health, and support services to members of the armed forces, retirees, affiliates, and others covered by the Department of Defense [8, 9].

The world military forces are in a period of history whose prominent characteristic is a shift like war and defense [10]. Moreover, because of the potential and inherent capabilities of the military forces, these forces play a key role in responding to crises as an operational auxiliary force. In recent years, the role of the armed forces in responding to natural disasters has increased, with the increase in scale and occurrence of natural disasters being the increasing tendency of humanitarian responses to militarization, and the increasing interest of the armed forces in responding to crises [11]. These developments come from not a single invention or idea but a wide range of evolving technologies. The military developments of the current century, rooted in technology, have been reached mainly due to various scientific branches [12]. Different sciences and technologies in the defense and security of the future are considered as a powerful and decisive tool in deterrence and balance of power between the home country and the enemy [13]. Having a proper understanding of the significance of this subject brings about identifying potential threats and defense and security opportunities and gaining the defense readiness of the Iranian Armed Forces. Understanding the future of science, technology, and emerging products in the field of military medicine could reduce many of the costs of the military health system and determine the future orientations of the defense medicine and bio-defense sector in a systematic and integrated way [14]. Thus, the preparation for any possible future arising from science, technology, and defense products in military medicine has turned into something necessary by researching what the future roadmap is. Identifying the most effective sciences and technologies in the field of military medicine and prioritizing them will help formulate its optimal roadmap.

The study was conducted to be aware of the opportunities and threats and identify priority areas of the armed forces health system using future studies and strategic foresight methods according to the experiences of universities, research institutes and medical research centers of the armed forces and experts and professors in military medicine with future studies techniques and tools.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study was descriptive in terms of purpose with survey design and mixed-method in terms of the procedure. The study was carried out in two parts. The first part was a systematic review and extraction of the data needed in the field of science and technology associated with the fields of personal medicine, hyperspace health, cognitive health, and bio-defense. At this stage, all English language databases (PubMed, Scopus, ISI, etc.) and Persian language (SID, Magiran, etc.) from the beginning to 2020 were examined to identify the related papers and documents in this field. The keywords future studies, military medicine, bio-defense, cognitive health, hyperspace health, personal medicine, and a combination of these keywords were used to search the databases. Moreover, for a more comprehensive review of grey resources (google scholar), the websites of leading centers in the stated fields and other associated research centers were searched, as well as references to related papers and documents. In the first stage, the data collection tool was a table of data extraction and note-taking. In the second stage, using the information extracted from papers and documents, related sciences and technologies and the strengths and weaknesses of the areas stated in the tables were prepared, and then the interview guide was formed and provided to experts in different fields and their opinions were taken. A semi-structured interview guide was used to collect data in the second stage, where the opinions of supervisors and consultants and reviewing related texts were turned to. The interview guide was semi-structured with the fewest questions possible. The questions were designed so that the desired data on stakeholder feedback could be obtained. The interview guide was revised after three interviews with stakeholders and using their opinions. The interview questions were about trends, drivers, opportunities, and threats in various fields of military medicine. Sampling was done using the purposive sampling method to select the people with the most information about the subject. Sampling was heterogeneous (participants with maximum diversity) and the individuals from various levels of policy-making and policy implementation, as well as organizations and interest groups, were interviewed. The number of samples continued until the data was saturated. The samples included key people from different faculties and research centers of military universities and researchers in this field (with published paper) and so on. Those with a master's degree or higher, general practitioners or specialists directly or indirectly involved in different fields of military medicine, people with more than five years of experience in this field, and executive experience in the field selected military medicine, formed the participants. The qualitative content analysis method was used to analyze the textual data of the documents.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The study examined and identified all documents and papers associated with the fields of military medicine and the major trends affecting these fields as well as opportunities, threats, and drivers of each field and classified them in the Tables (1-5).

 

 

Table 1. Major Trends that Affect the Military Medicine Areas

Macro social and cultural trends

Macro technological trends

Macroeconomic trends

Environmental trends

Political/legal trends

Value trends and lifestyle

Increase in life expectancy

Development of communication platforms and information transfer infrastructures

Digital-based economy

Increasing the dominance of technology over the environment

Continuation of globalization

Accelerating the change of social values and new health threats

Population aging and increase in aging and the effect on the health system

Focus on strengthening the body and human capabilities

Increasing health inequalities and diseases

Propagation of technologies faster

Increasing governance challenges for governments

Increasing use of cyberspace

Formation of a knowledge-dependent society

Systemic medicine

 

Increasing social and moral concerns

High-risk global society and the nature of battles

Restricting the privacy of individuals

Increasing specialization and level of education

Convergence of converged processes/technologies (NBICs)

 

 

Developing the political geography of the Islamic Revolution

 

Urbanism

Technologies for connecting the human brain with robotics

 

 

 

 

 

Fusion of physical, digital, and biological worlds

 

 

 

 

 

Artificial intelligence will reach the level of human intelligence

 

 

 

 

 

Internet of Things (IoT)

 

 

 

 

 

Cloud computing

 

 

 

 

 

Augmented reality in the field of health

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2. Findings on Military Medicine Opportunities

The field of bio-defense

Cognitive health field

Personal medicine

Hyperspace health

Biology System

Mind engineering

Ultra-precise medicine

Tele-mentoring

Gene and artificial cell synthesis

Stimulate the brain

Tissue Engineering

Tricorder

Diagnostic technologies in smartphones (smart mobile laboratory)

Behavior and performance simulation

Reconstructive medicine

Biomedical

Detection and tracking with biosensors (biosensors and biomarkers)

Cognitive assessment of individuals

Organs-on-a-Chip

Artificial implants (additives and improvers)

Biological threat monitoring systems

Electrical stimulation of the brain

Personal Database in Blockchain

Biosensors (sensors)

Biomimetic systems

Autonomous Systems

Next-generation cryptography

Patient identification and safety systems

Methods of DNA fabrication and nanomolecular production

Tactile and Haptic Systems

Molecular Medicine

(Smart risk detector)

Particle microwave particle spectroscopy

Human Augmentation

Genomic information system

Telemedicine drone

Cobinamide encapsulated silica for the respiratory tract

Extraordinary forecasting technology or SNAFU

Personal medicine big data system

HiRO

Rapid detection of microbial contamination of drinking water

Reverse engineering and brain modeling

Artificial intelligence

Home care service system

RNAi and SiRNA interfering RNA or Aligo antisense technology

Human-computer coexistence (cybernetics)

Medical

P4:

Anticipation, prevention, personalization, and participation

Medical research using Grids

Genetic mapping and DNA analysis

Augmented Cognition

Proteomics

Medical research using Grids

Synthetic biological engineering

Software and robotics assistants

Epigenomics

Disease and Emergency Tracking (GPS)

Gene vaccines

Noro ergonomic

Transcriptomics

Wearable monitors

Gene chips, probes (gene probes)

Biomarkers for sleep

Metabolomics

Telemedicine video conferencing software

Wound infection

Cyborg technologies

Pharmacogenomics

Wireless Health Care Network (Mobile)

Cloning

Neuroprosthetics

Circulating tumor DNA testing

Augmented reality medical diagnosis

Gene Modification Technology (CRISPR)

Virtual simulation-based training

Microbiome analysis

Mobile health apps

Biological simulators

Broad Operational Language Translation (BOLT)

Single-cell ‘omic analysis

Interactive voice response software

Specifying the biomolecular structure using a laser

Awaking power

Pathogen genomics

Teletherapy

Gene Therapy

Mind control

Stem cell therapy

Store and forward

Cell-less biosynthesis

Interface Brain–Brain

Gene therapy and gene editing

Remote Patient Management (RPM)

Engineering of biological systems and networks

Full integration of technology with the body's nervous system

Virtual and augmented reality

Teletherapy

Collection and manipulation of biological information (biological artificial intelligence)

Humanoid robots

(Equipped with double intelligence)

3D printing

Store and forward

Rejuvenation of cells with the help of DNA

Artificial eye

Socially-Assistive Robots (SARs)

Remote Patient Management (RPM)

Omics technologies

Night vision technology

bioengineering technologies

Big data health

Bio-catalysis

Skeleton Auxilia

Telemedicine and Biosensors

Internet of Things

Biochips

Neurogenetic

Biomarkers

Remote radiology

Virus and bacterial engineering

Neurolaw

epigenetics

Remote pathology

transformation and transient expression technologies

Neuroethics

Bioinformatics

Remote cardiology

 

Neuroculture

Modeling and simulation

Remote consultation

 

Neurogame

Wearable device

Computational sociology software and collective behavior prediction

 

 

Cell engineering

Artificial intelligence nanobots in the human body

 

 

nanostructure

Expert systems

 

 

3D scaffold

Robodoc

 

 

Immunotherapy

Robotic surgery

 

 

Exposome

Interdisciplinary approach in science and technology/hybrid

 

 

Crisper Genome Editing Technology

Fusion of physical, digital, and biological worlds (biological technological revolution)

 

 

Medical care based on bioelectronics

(Biomedical)

Cybernetic enhancements (Increase in health)

 

 

Making an artificial genome

 

 

 

Genomic Reading Machines or NGS

 

 

 

Nutriogenomics (nutrition genomics)

 

 

 

Face recognition from DNA

 

 

 

Pocket genome reading technology

 

 

 

Genomics and Ameex Technologies

 

 

Table 3. The Results on Threats to Military Medicine

The field of bio-defense

Cognitive health

Personal medicine

Hyperspace health

Environment (ecotourism)

Neuroweapons

Genetic weapons (DNA-based personalized weapons)

Digital Divide

Human body (Bioterrorist)

Cognitive Warfare

Next-generation cryptography

Artificial intelligence technology

The human psyche, cognition, and behavior

Military Brain Science

Artificial intelligence technology

Information and cyber hacking

Food and Agriculture (Agroterrorist)

Psychological neuroscience

Biotechnology in the production of weapons

Biowarfare

Web technologies

 

Digital media and cyberspace

Artificial manipulation and transfer of genetic material

Secure and fast communication infrastructure

 

Social media neuroscience

Nanotechnologies

 

 

People's culture and genealogy

Gene therapy and gene editing

 

 

Cheetah

Modeling and simulation

 

 

Cyber insects

Ethnic racial bombs (via emerging viruses; pathogens and racial bio-weapons)

 

 

Robotic animals

Supersoldier

 

 

Network-centric warfare

Unified Insect Technology

 

 

Impact-driven operations

Genomic database

 

 

Robot Bird

Bio hack

 

 

Artificial implants and additives and cognitive enhancers

Brain Decoding

 

 

Rifle self-calculating camera

 

 

 

Near-Air Immediate Support System (Project AS-PIK)

 

 

 

Drones

 

 

 

Naval warheads hidden on the ocean floor

 

 

 

Bullets that can change direction during a flight

 

 

 

Bird trucks

 

 

 

A drone that can fly for years

 

 

 

A system that gives soldiers more visual information

 

 

 

Stratospheric airship

 

 

 

Table 4. The Results on Military Medicine Propellants

The field of bio-defense

Cognitive health

Personal medicine

Hyperspace health

Health

Sociocultural

Technology

Health

Sociocultural

Technology

Health

Sociocultural

Technology

Health

Sociocultural

Technology

Biomedical

Demographic and population changes

Industrial production and advanced materials

Digital health

Demographic structure changes

Smart world

Human empowerment

Demographic and population changes

Production of advanced biological products and materials

Digital health

Demographic changes

Smart world

Human empowerment

Lifestyle

Digitization and virtualization

Accurate medicine and personalized care

Lifestyle

The future market of medical technologies

Explorations about aging

Personal lifestyle

Digitization and virtualization

Ultra-precision medicine and leading tools

Life style

Big data

Biological system

Global warming

Convergence of technologies

Remote health

Social media

Big data

Advances in gene therapy

Individualism

Convergence of technologies

Networking services

Social media

Leading tools

Reconstructive medicine

Need water and food

Robotics and artificial intelligence

Networking services

Urban development

Internet of things (IoT)

Induction demands

Useful products

Robotics and artificial intelligence

Personal doctor

Security defense scenarios

Cyberspace

Personalized medicine

Energy production

Mobile technologies and agility

Induced demand-based medical care

Development of futuristic thinking in the country

Cybersecurity

Fast detection and responsiveness

The nature of future wars

Mobile technologies and agility

Meet needs online

 

Mobile technologies and agility

Fast detection and responsiveness

Transgenic products

Automation

Meeting needs online

industrialization

Leading tools

Value-based services

Community literacy

Automation of medical processes

Physician-patient relationship

 

Automatization

Development of innovation and new therapies

The nature of future wars

Genomics Information Security

Physician-patient relationship

Age

Virtual reality

Patient participation with the physician

Information everywhere

Genomics Information Security

Transformation in medical education

 

Internet penetration rate among users

Systemic medicine

Storage and distribution of resources

Big data

Transformation in medical education

Religion and ideology

Artificial intelligence and robotics

Improving the understanding of brain activity

Increase in revenue

Big data

Systemic medicine

 

Information security

 

 

3D and 4D printing

Systemic medicine

Willingness to invest in future medicine

Brain interfaces

Medical application at the molecular level

 

3D and 4D printing

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accurate and precise diagnosis

 

Autonomous and semi-autonomous systems

Beyond the hospital

 

Tissue Engineering and Reconstructive Medicine

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mental health

 

Wearable and ambient sensors

Food and drug industry

 

Transparent medicine

 

 

 

 

 

 

Health literacy

 

3D printing

Increasing the costs of the health system

 

Pharmacogenomics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Machine vision

Medicine Transition from Modernism to Biomedicine

 

Personal Medical Record (PMR)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Simulations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 5. The Results related to the Capabilities of Military Medicine

Bio-defense

Cognitive health

Personal medicine

Hyperspace Health

Establishing advanced systems and tools for monitoring, monitoring, and warning of biological threats

Establish advanced systems and tools for monitoring, monitoring, and predicting cognitive health-related behaviors and threats

Detecting the disease in the early stages

Online monitoring of combat performance and health (remote monitoring - mobile health)

Designing and developing accurate tools for rapid detection and detection (Real-Time) of biological agents

Designing and developing accurate tools for rapid detection of risk factors and threats related to cognitive health

Establishing genetic laboratory infrastructure to evaluate risk and determine susceptibility to disease

Identifying injuries and rapid detection of combat diseases on the battlefield (remote detection)

Establishing prevention infrastructures, development of inhibitors and systems for elimination and disposal of biological agents

Providing rehabilitation services with cognitive tools

Preventive interventions to prevent disease in the areas of behavior, lifestyle, and cognition

Support for treatment, improved access, and real-time medical care (treatment and remote care)

Creating research infrastructure (reference laboratory and BSL)

Developing basic knowledge and technologies to strengthen human cognition and increase health

Correct diagnosis with accurate tools and personal monitoring to select targeted therapies

Intelligent rehabilitation and help heal damaged forces on the battlefield (remote rehabilitation)

Access to food safety knowledge and technologies and products that control environmental pollution

Production of advanced pharmaceutical materials and brain stimulation products

Improving therapeutic results through targeted drugs (pharmacogenomics), accurate medication, and accurate health

Reaching an intelligent transmission and rescue system for the wounded from the battlefield (tracking and tracing)

Procuring equipment (medical and non-medical) and advanced and agile platforms for biosecurity management

Providing advanced medical services and diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for cognitive impairments

Establishing personal health management systems with active monitoring of treatment responses and disease progression

Improving the knowledge of specialists in providing remote services (distance education and consulting)

Producing advanced targeted pharmaceutical, vaccine, tissue engineering, bioinspiration, and hybrid materials

Establishing systems, development of equipment, and provision of services for prevention of risk factors and cognitive health monitoring

Developing personal digital therapies and manipulation of intelligent human products

Procuring advanced and agile medical and non-medical equipment at the location of remote systems

Improving the knowledge of specialists in line with the developments of systemic medicine, biological system, and convergent technologies

 

Knowledge mastery and access to basic sciences and medical technologies, precision, and sequencing of the superior generation

Information engineering, high-speed communications, and exchange in the context of secure network and protection

Developing basic knowledge and technologies in handicrafts for bioengineering and bio-defense products

 

 

 

Providing advanced medical services with genetic engineering technologies, biomedicine, and nanotechnology

 

 

 

 

 

Identifying macro trends and their effects on various areas is of the main concerns of each country for all areas. One of these major trends is demographic change. Population growth is considered one of the significant components of a country's defense and security power, which could result in the deterrence of countries in case of adopting proper policies and using the national identity. Increasing life expectancy is another major trend that increases investment in science and technology to combat aging, aging care, and the cost of health systems. The population aging process and increasing aging could be considered as the most effective social trend in the future of science and biotechnology and health technologies. Among the effects of establishing a knowledge-based community is the dissemination of information, privacy, and access to health information of the forces by the enemy and terrorist tools, the construction and use of cultural aggression in defense and security affairs in cyberspace could be cited. One of the natural consequences of the urbanization process is the promotion of a welfare lifestyle. Socially, urbanization is usually accompanied by increased education and awareness. This phenomenon does not necessarily reduce social harm and threats to national security.

Biomedicine and strengthening the human body are other future trends. The huge therapeutic potential of genomics along with the exponential reduction of gene editing techniques such as CRISPR have brought about a fertile context for the rapid advancement of technology in genetic engineering [15]. Systemic medicine is another future trend that has a comprehensive outlook and all kinds of biological information will give birth to future systemic medicine. The term “convergent technologies” has a significant place in the policy-making process in science and technology. The consequence of this technology is to increase longevity and anti-aging, and we can extend the range of healthy living beyond one hundred years, call designed evolution including the use of all previous approaches; however, it focuses on genetic therapy to design evolution to combine life with disease resistance [16]. Another future trend is the convergence of technologies. One of the strong trends showing itself over the past decade is the interdisciplinary approach in science and technology. The scholars in the occupying regime in Jerusalem have developed a computer for animal cells instead of biological silicon chips that use DNA. These developments may soon allow computers to communicate directly with the human brain. Advances in robotics and automation, artificial intelligence, nanotechnology and biotechnology, quantum computing, IoT, 3D printing, automated devices, brain amplification technologies, gene editing, and universe design are key technologies that feed the fusion revolution of physical, digital, and biological worlds and will radically transform the performance of the modern economy. Moreover, they drastically affect the level of employment and the form of jobs, the nature of work, business operating models, governments, countries, regions, cities, international security, society, individual identity, ethics, human relations, and the management of individual and collective information whose signs are now emerging from the convergence of technology. Among the other future trends are the development of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence is growing rapidly, and its successful application in e-health is likely due to the availability of large data sets and computing resources. Artificial intelligence is used in many areas of medicine like oncology, dermatology, radiology, neurology, neurodegenerative diseases, and many more. Generally, a major AI theme in medicine is Clinical Decision Support (CDS) to help physicians in the care setting [17]. Another trend is artificial biology. Artificial biology is introducing engineering principles into biotechnology using computer modeling and DNA combinations to write gene sequences from scratch. Reducing costs and the emergence of new gene-editing tools such as Crisper accelerate this development. Trends in biological defense strategies to meet unmet needs for the production of immunosuppressive and full-blown antibodies contain human-like glycosylation patterns. Ebola virus reveals mAbs with modified N-glycosylation patterns increase potency and could potentially be used as human therapies to increase potency with modified N-glycosylation patterns and potentially be used as human therapies [18].

Another trend is associated with the economy, jobs, and productivity. The current trend shows that the sharing of the economy in the world is increasing. Thus, the growth of employment instability is reduced. However, with digital growth, it is likely to get out of the states’ control. With aging, future growth is increasingly driven by innovation and investment in skills. The economy based on digital is emerging rapidly creating great opportunities for individuals, foreign firms, and entrepreneurs to succeed in the market [19].

As water scarcity and drought, as well as energy consumption, could be a threat to the security of the country, the armed forces need to help the country. Planning a new generation of water treatment facilities using advanced technologies to solve the challenges posed by micro-sized contaminants including medical and cosmetic contaminants, and so on, and using IoT and advanced energy storage technologies bring about opportunities for better monitoring and management of energy systems. Advances in science and technology in bio-defense and increasing demand, environmental complexity, anxiety, error risk, and bio-threats are increasing [20]. People active in defense science and technology have to have access to new technologies more quickly. The slacking of the responsible organizations in this field could result in exceeding the capabilities of rival countries. Climate change affects mass migration, transportation, agriculture, housing, and energy production. Energy technology innovation will be the key in reaching a two-degree temperature reduction scenario. A comprehensive list of low-carbon technologies, including solutions for decarbonization, has to be pursued for climate goals and policies. IoT, applications, and sensors lead to better monitoring of climate change, ecosystems, and biodiversity.

Identifying the sciences and technologies affecting the future of defense command and management is of the basic requirements of the defense sector. The overall list of possible sciences and technologies in the field of military medicine and examples of discontinuation technologies and monitoring in bio-defense, cognitive health, telemedicine, and personal medicine affected by these sciences and technologies based on the source of obvious information is as follows:

 

Cloud Computing in Health Information Technology

Cloud computing is a computing model based on computer networks such as the Internet, which provides a new model for the supply, consumption, and provision of computing services in the network. In this technology, access to online services in cyberspace is possible in a flexible and scalable way on-demand, based on the volume of user demand. Cloud computing shows a new and leading-edge in health information technology. Using cloud computing in health information technology provides many opportunities to provide health care services. Thanks to cloud computing, thick paper files, radiographs, and medical prescriptions, which are usually handwritten, will become electronic documents that can be accessed at any time and place [21].

 

IoT in Health

IoT is one of the most widely used technologies that we will hear more about in the coming years and the developments resulting from the use of this technology. Although IoT is applicable in all areas, one can state that one of the most important and attractive areas that can adapt faster than other areas is health. Among the applications of IoT in health, one can refer to smart boards, remote monitoring of medical symptoms, continuous monitoring of blood sugar and insulin levels, connected spray for asthmatic patients, cancer treatment, edible and digestible sensors, and smart medical contact lenses in healthcare and blood coagulation testing. Although there are many concerns on health care in this regard persist, the place of IoT in health and health care is growing [22].

 

Artificial Intelligence in Biology and Medicine

Artificial intelligence is a technology and branch in computer science that deals with studying and developing software and smart devices. The main ideas of artificial intelligence should be sought in philosophy, linguistics, mathematics, psychology, neuroscience, physiology, rotation theory, probability, and optimization, with its many uses in defense, computer science, engineering, biology, medicine, social sciences, and many other sciences [23]. It is estimated that artificial intelligence will enable robots to create works of art like humans. It is also predicted that humans can drastically improve their language skills by using an implantable chip in the neocortex area of ​​the brain [24].

 

Computational Sociology and Prediction of Collective Behavior in Health

Nowadays, with the advancement of technology, especially in artificial intelligence, countries seek methods and solutions that pave the way for their survival in the chaotic atmosphere of the future. One of the critical tools to reach this in recent years can be the technology of computational sociology and predicting collective behavior. Some of the sub-technologies associated with this phenomenon can be considered as virtual social networks, optimization technologies derived from applied mathematics such as neural networks, data mining, genetic programming, and machine learning [25].

 

Human Brain-like Calculations (Neuromorphic)

One of the technologies that are effective in the future of command and control of the battlefield is to reach a degree of capability that can control objects through the power of the mind and using the interface between the brain and the computer. Companies such as Facebook seek to hire neuroscientists. One of the key technologies in this field is nanotechnology technology and progress in each of the fields - material production, provision of tools and connections, computational architecture, brain-inspired solutions, manufacturing/production of artificial neurons, computer/brain-brain communication software/computers, modeling and simulation of self-conscious robots, humans integrated with machines, and application design - accelerate this technology [26].

 

Replication in Biology

Nowadays, "cloning" or human cloning has turned into a global debate. Although its details are not yet clear to the world and its future, many individuals and groups around the world pursue the explanation of this new phenomenon from different aspects through ongoing studies at the same time. Despite many advances by scientists in animal cloning, it has been proven that it is very difficult to clone humans and other mammals every time it is human when it comes to humans. However, although human has not yet reached the ability to fully imitate a human so far, human cells have been made [27].

 

Data Mining, Text Mining, and Big Data Analysis

In the past two decades, information technology has been widely used in medicine. E-health is a new and growing field of the intersection of medical information, health, and information technology. Big data is a term for a large, diverse dataset with a complex structure including difficulties in storage, analysis, imaging, and processing. Big data analysis has changed the way management is managed in different areas, including health care, and has created promising opportunities. Big data has become the main driving force in the emergence of new technologies including artificial intelligence, data science, and the IoT in the age of digital transformation [28].

 

The Science of Modeling and Simulation

The science of simulation and modeling stems from human attention to the reproducibility of the realities of the universe, and many art forms have been simulated. The most prevalent application of simulation studies has been studying human behavior in dangerous situations like a battlefield without endangering one's life. Simulating building behavior against natural disasters such as earthquakes or storms is a common application of this method and new tools in this field have been placed to exploit commanders and combat units with an increase in the advancement of computer science. Modeling and simulation science in health can be used for medical education and health management [29].

 

Predicting and Identifying the Nature of Accidents

The predictive analysis involves some statistical techniques including modeling, prediction, machine learning, and data mining, analyzing the past common facts to make predictions for the future or unknown events. Predicting and identifying the nature of accidents in intelligent risk prediction in health care, intelligent risk diagnosis, and assessment models, and modeling of intelligent decision support systems can be used in the health domain.

 

Biotechnology

Biotechnology is a set of techniques and approaches where living organisms or some of them are used in the processes of production, change, and optimization or for special uses of plants and animals. One of the biotechnology applications is biosensors, used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease and tissue engineering. Another branch of biotechnology is agricultural biotechnology and livestock production, used in agricultural processes and increasing crop yields and livestock production. For instance, using this technology, one can create transgenic plants adaptable to specific environmental conditions. Agricultural companies manipulate crop seeds to increase pest resistance [30].

 

Nanobiotechnology

Nanotechnology in biology (molecular and cellular genetics) and biotechnology as nanobiotechnology allows us to insert components and parts into cells and create new materials using self-repairing methods [31]. The creation of DNA-based structures in medicine, pharmacy, genetic engineering, and biotechnology will be a new revolution in these sciences. Currently, nanotechnology is primarily used to produce biosensors [32].

CONCLUSION

What emerges from monitoring the policies of science, technology, and defense products is the focus of the countries of the world on policy-making in influential sciences, which can achieve a significant advantage for the country with knowledge and technology by converting the latest findings of those sciences into defense technologies and products and ensure deterrence at the strategic level. America is the pioneer of military medicine, with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) accountable for developing new technologies in the country.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: This study was part of a Research project supported by the Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (99000722).

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None

FINANCIAL SUPPORT: None

ETHICS STATEMENT: None


References

1.       Hetz SP. Introduction to military medicine: a brief overview. Surg Clin. 2017;86(3):675-88.

2.       Dehghanzadeh H, Mohammadimehr M. Designing the Curriculum of General Medicine with Military Approach. Future Med Educ J. 2019;9(4):33-6.

3.       Gutman M, Maj F, Mc U, Facep MJDM. The role of emergency medicine in the military. 2006.

4.       Haag A, Cone EB, Wun J, Herzog P, Lyon S, Nabi J, et al. Trends in Surgical Volume in the Military Health System—A Potential Threat to Mission Readiness. Mil Med. 2021;186(7-8):646-50.

5.       Eygelaar SJD. The application of the excellence model to enhance military health service delivery and performance excellence. Rand Afrikaans University; 2004.

6.       Rahmani R, Sh M, Zareei Zavaraki E, Abbaspour A, Maleki H. Military medicine's role in the armed forces and the need to develop specialized education programs in Iran military medicine. J Mil Med. 2018;13(4):247-52.

7.       Lerner A, Soudry M. Armed conflict injuries to the extremities: A treatment manual. Springer Science & Business Media; 2011.

8.       Smith DJ, Bono RC, Slinger BJ. Transforming the military health system. JAMA. 2017;318(24):2427-8.

9.       Kosmatka TJ. 2011 Military Health System Conference. 2011.

10.   Mayeli M, Brahmani M. New cold war rivalry between world powers in cyberspace. Stud Int Relat J (Polit Sci Int Relat J). 2017;5(20(:133-62.

11.   Niazee M, Karimi-Taher R, Rabani M. A Framework for Optimizing Disaster Relief Logistics and Evacuation Considering Armed Forces Role. J Emerg Manag. 2018;7(1):57-72.

12.   Rollins J. Comprehensive national cybersecurity initiative: Legal authorities and policy considerations. DIANE Publishing; 2009.

13.   Cannon JW, Gross KR, Rasmussen TE. Combating the peacetime effect in military medicine. JAMA Surg. 2021;156(1):5-6.

14.   Rasmussen TE, Reilly PA, Baer DG. Why military medical research? Mil Med. 2017;179(suppl_8):1-2.

15.   Ishino Y, Krupovic M, Forterre P. History of CRISPR-Cas from Encounter with a Mysterious Repeated Sequence to Genome Editing Technology. J Bacteriol. 2018;200(7):e00580-17.

16.   Azadi Ahmadabad G. Converging Technologies: Interaction Between Science and Technology. Sci Technol Policy Lett. 2017;06(4):41-52.

17.   Sadoughi F, Sheikhtaheri A. Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Clinical Decision Making: Opportunities and Challenges. Health Inf Manag. 2011;8(3(19)):440-5.

18.   El Karoui M, Hoyos-Flight M, Fletcher L. Future Trends in Synthetic Biology—A Report. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2019;7:175.

19.   Greve A, Benassi M, Sti AD. Exploring the contributions of human and social capital to productivity. Int Rev Sociol. 2017;20(1):35-58.

20.   Wortmann F, Flüchter K. Internet of things. Bus Inf Syst Eng. 2017;57(3):221-4.


Entomology and Applied Science Letters is an international peer reviewed publication which publishes scientific research & review articles related to insects that contain information of interest to a wider audience, e.g. papers bearing on the theoretical, genetic, agricultural, medical and biodiversity issues. Emphasis is also placed on the selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance. Papers on non-insect groups are no longer accepted. In addition to full-length research articles and reviews, the journal publishes interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, and Letters to the Editor. The journal publishes reports on all phases of medical entomology and medical acarology, including the systematics and biology of insects, acarines, and other arthropods of public health and veterinary significance.
Issue 2 Volume 9 - 2022
Call for Papers
Entomology and Applied Science Letters supports the submission of entomological papers that contain information of interest to a wider reader groups e. g. papers bearing on taxonomy, phylogeny, biodiversity, ecology, systematic, agriculture, morphology. The selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance is also important. Distinguished entomologists drawn from different parts of the world serve as honorary members of the Editorial Board. The journal encompasses all the varied aspects of entomological research. This has become the need felt in scientific research due to the emphasis on intra-, inter-, and multi-disciplinary approach.