Creative Commons License 2018 Volume 5 Issue 1

Using CAD/CAM Technology to Prepare Skin Incision Template and Predict Size Reduction of Each Breast Separately and Final Shape of Breast After Reduction Mammoplasty Surgery

Seyed Mehdi Mousavizadeh, Hormoz Mahmoudvand, Hadi Rezazadeh, Hamid Reza Alizadeh Otaghvar, Seyed Mohammad Ali Mousavizadeh, Abdolreza Rouietan

Background: Reduction mammoplasty is getting common in plastic surgery, and in preoperative marking process, the accuracy of the surgery and the satisfaction of patients are of the most debating subjects. For this issue, the current study investigated the use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD CAM) to assess changes in marking process and projection of breasts following vertical reduction mammoplasty.

Methods: Reduction mammoplasty could encounter many difficulties as misunderstanding between surgeon and patients about the dimensional perception and dissatisfaction of the patients after the surgery. CAD CAM was used in this study to offer a solution for predicting breast volume, shape, size and preparing a 3D template for patients to try. The marking criteria were evaluated on 16 patients using two methods; A) classic and B) use of CAD CAM technology for compatibility of these methods’ results with each other, and their effects on the rate of the patients’ satisfaction.

Results: Classic marking techniques require much more time for the process. However, CAD CAM could decrease the time period of marking to 9.1 minutes less than the classic process. Marking criteria were assessed by these two methods, and did not show any significant differences (compatibility approved) before and after the reduction mammoplasty. Projection level was evaluated using CAD CAM. It is noteworthy, 3D template and involvement of the patients led to 100% satisfaction of the patients (8.8 of 10).

Conclusion: Because of many beneficial uses of new 3D technologies in the field of cosmetic plastic surgeries, CAD CAM is a promising tool for attaining patients’ ideal results and saving surgeons’ time.


Dancey A, Khan M, Dawson J, Peart F. Gigantomastia - a classification and review of the literature. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. December 13, 2007;

Amaral MH, Dao H, Shin JH. Racial and socioeconomic disparities in reduction mammoplasty: An analysis of nationwide inpatient sample database. Ann Plast Surg. 2011;66:476–8.

Oladele AO, Olabanji JK, Alabi GH. Reduction mammoplasty: The experience in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Niger J Med. 2007;16:261–7.

Agbenorku P, Agamah G, Agbenorku M, Obeng M. Reduction mammoplasty in a developing country: A guideline for plastic surgeons for patient selection. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2012;36:91–6.

Thorne C, Chung KC, Gosain A, Guntner GC, Mehrara BJ, Rubin R, Spear SL, editors. Grabb and Smith's Plastic Surgery. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health; 2014.

Villani F, Caviggioli F, Banzatti B, Bandi V, Malone L. Correlation between complication rate and perioperative risk-factors in superior pedicle reduction mammaplasty: our experience in 127 patients. Acta Chir Plast. 2009; 51(3-4): 65-8.

Daane SP, Rockwell B. Breast Reduction Techniques and Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis. Aesth Plast Surg 1999; 19: 293-303.

Ciocca, L., and Scotti, R. CAD-CAM generated ear cast by means of a laser scanner and rapid prototyping machine. J. Prosthet. Dent. 92: 591, 2004.

Seibert, J. P. Human body 3D imaging by Specke texture projection photogrammetry. Sensor Rev. 3: 218, 2000.

Nahabedian, M. Y., and Galdino, G. Symmetrical breast reconstruction: Is there a role for three-dimensional digital photography? Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 112: 1582, 2003.

Galdino, G. M., Nahabedian, M., Chiaramonte, M., Geng, J. Z., Klatsky, S., and Manson, P. Clinical applications of three-dimensional photography in breast surgery. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 110: 58, 2002.

Isogai, N., Sai, K., Kamiishi, H., Watatani, M., Inui, H., and Shiozaki, H. Quantitative analysis of the reconstructed breast using a 3-dimensional laser light scanner. Ann. Plast. Surg. 56: 237, 2006.

Edsander-Nord, A., Wickman, M., and Jurell, G. Measurement of breast volume with thermoplastic casts. Scand. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. Hand Surg. 30: 129, 1996.

Tezel, E., and Numanoglu, A. Practical do-it-yourself device for accurate volume measurement of breast. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 105: 1019, 2000.

Loyer, E. M., Kroll, S. S., David, C. L., DuBrow, R. A., and Libshitz, H. I. Mammographic and CT findings after breast reconstruction with a rectus

Entomology and Applied Science Letters is an international double-blind peer reviewed publication which publishes scientific research & review articles related to insects that contain information of interest to a wider audience, e.g. papers bearing on the theoretical, genetic, agricultural, medical and biodiversity issues. Emphasis is also placed on the selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance. In addition to full-length research articles and reviews, the journal publishes interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, and Letters to the Editor. The journal publishes reports on all phases of medical entomology and medical acarology, including the systematics and biology of insects, acarines, and other arthropods of public health and veterinary significance.

Announcement and Advertisement
Announcements regarding scientific activities such as conferences, symposium, are published for free. Advertisements can be either published or placed on website as banners.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IPS) , University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore Pakistan.
open access
Entomology and Applied Science Letters supports the submission of entomological papers that contain information of interest to a wider reader groups e. g. papers bearing on taxonomy, phylogeny, biodiversity, ecology, systematic, agriculture, morphology. The selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance is also important. Distinguished entomologists drawn from different parts of the world serve as honorary members of the Editorial Board. The journal encompasses all the varied aspects of entomological research.