Creative Commons License 2019 Volume 6 Issue 3

Epidemiologic - Demographic Status of Scorpion- Stung Patients in Khorramshahr County, Southwestern Iran

Hamid Kassiri, Iman Khodkar, Shahnaz Kazemi, Niusha Kasiri, Maral Kasiri

Introduction and Objectives: Nearly two-thousand scorpion species have been identified worldwide, twenty-five of which have health importance. Each year approximately half a million individuals are stung by scorpions in the world with a fatality rate of 3250 people. In Iran, there are nearly 40000 cases in a year and the numbers of recorded deaths are between 14-29 people. Scorpionism is one of the most significant medical subjects in Iran especially in the southern areas; so that Khuzestan Province is one of the most significant foci of scorpionism. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of the individuals stung by scorpions in Khorramshahr region, Khuzestan province, Southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods: In this analytic descriptive study, all patients with scorpion sting were assessed from 2013 to 2017. Data regarding the patient's age, gender, site of the sting, month of envenomation, administration of scorpion antivenin, time of the sting, geographical area, and the color of scorpion were extracted and recorded. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software, version 22.0 using Pearson's Chi-square and student's t-test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant Results: During the research period, the total number of scorpion stings reviewed was 1045. Envenomation with scorpions was reported throughout the year. About 42.7% and 31.1% of the stings occurred during summer and spring, respectively, most of which occurred in June (%20.5) and July (%18.6). The most prevalent site of envenomation was the lower extremities (62.5%), followed by upper extremities (36.9%) and trunk (0.6%). The gender distribution showed 44.5% females and 55.5% males. In addition, more than 48.8% of patients referred to the hospital at night between 18:00 to 00:00. In 58.5% of the stung patients, the color of the scorpions was black. The majority of patients aged more than 50 (20.8%) and 0-10 (19.1%) years. There were significant statistical differences between these variables and the prevalence of stings. Conclusions: The presence of medically important scorpions, in Khuzestan Province, requires control and health educational programs for the reduction of scorpion sting problem.




Hafid H, Allaoua N, Hamlaoui A, Rebbah AC, Merzoug D. Structure and Diversity of Arthropod Communities in the Jebel SidiR'ghiss Forest (Oum El Bouaghi) North East Algerian. World. 2018;7(4):95-101.

Chomaili B, Moghisi A, Zare-Mirakabadi A. Guide line in treatment of Scorpion bite. 1, editor. Tehran: Ministry of Health Publication Center. 2008. (In Persian).

Prophylaxis of snake and scorpion bite in the Islamic republic of Iran. 2005-2006. Education CfdcMoHaM; 2006. (In Persian).

Kamali K. Identification of important scorpion in Khuzestan. Scientific J Agriculture, Chamran Uni Ahvaz. 1984;1:34-5. (In Persian).


David AW. Guidelines for the clinical management of snake-bites in the south-east Asia region. World Health Organization, Regional Office for South East Asia, New Delhi. 2005:1-67.

Dehghani R, Valaei N. Scorpion bite in Iran: Review of the literature. KAUMS Journal (Feyz). 2005 Apr 15;9(1):66-84. (In Persian).

Bourbia S, Bouslama Z. First Inventory of Spiders in Fetzara Lake (Wetland) In North Eastern Algeria and Studying of Monthly Dynamics of Abundances and Species Richness. World. 2018;7(2):50-4.

Araújo CS, Candido DM, de Araújo HF, Dias SC, Vasconcellos A. Seasonal variations in scorpion activities (Arachnida: Scorpiones) in an area of Caatinga vegetation in northeastern Brazil. Zoologia. 2010 Jun 13;27(3).

Dehghani R, Djadid ND, Shahbazzadeh D, Bigdelli S. Introducing Compsobuthus matthiesseni (Birula, 1905) scorpion as one of the major stinging scorpions in Khuzestan, Iran. Toxicon. 2009 Sep 1;54(3):272-5.

Al-Sadoon MK, Jarrar BM. Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997. Journal of venomous animals and toxins including tropical diseases. 2003;9(1):54-64.

TALEBIAN A, DOROUDGAR A. Epidemiologic study of scorpion sting in patients referring to Kashan medical centers during 1991-2002. 2006; 1(4):191-194.

Kassiri H, Khodkar I, Yousefi M, Kasiri N, Lotfi M. Descriptive-Analytical Evaluation of Scorpion Sting Incidence in Masjed-Soleyman County, Southwestern Iran. Entomol Appl Sci Lett. 2019; 6 (2): 13-19.

Osnaya-Romero N, de Jesus Medina-Hernández T, Flores-Hernández SS, Leon-Rojas G. Clinical symptoms observed in children envenomated by scorpion stings, at the children's hospital from the State of Morelos, Mexico. Toxicon. 2001 Jun 1;39(6):781-5.

Pardal PP, Castro LC, Jennings E, Pardal JS, Monteiro MR. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of scorpion envenomation in the region of Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Revista da sociedade Brasileira de medicina tropical. 2003 Jun;36(3):349-53.


Attamo H, Diawara NA, Garba A. Epidemiology of scorpion envenomations in the pediatric service of the Agadez hospital center (Niger) in 1999. Bulletin de la Societe de pathologie exotique (1990). 2002 Aug;95(3):209-11.

Kassiri H, Lotfi M, Ebrahimi A. Epidemiological, clinical charachterictics and outcome of scorpion envenomation in Abdanan County, Western Iran: An analysis of 780 cases. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017;4(8):2692-701.

Kassiri H, Kasiri A, Kasiri E, Abdian P, Matori F, Lotfi M. Epidemiological characteristics and incidence rate of definite scorpion stings in Mahshahr County, Iran: a multivariate analysis of 1 635 cases. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2015 Jan 1;5(1):80-4.

Kassiri H, Khodkar I, Safari-Asl A, Lotfi M. Study of The Frequency and Incidence of Scorpion Envenomation in Aghajri County, Khuzestan Province, Southwestern Iran. Entomology and Applied Science Letters. 2018 Jan 1;5(1):64-71.

Farghly WM, Ali FA. A clinical and neurophysiological study of scorpion envenomation in Assiut, Upper Egypt. Acta paediatrica. 1999 Mar;88(3):290-4.

Talebian A, Dourodgar A. The Epidemiologic study of scorpion sting referred to medical centers. Bimonthly scientific – research Shahed university. 2005; 13(59):37-44.

Hossininasab A, Alidoosti K, Torabinejad MH. An epidemiologic study on scorpion sting and its effective factors in south of Kerman province, Iran. Journal of Medical Council of the Islamic Republic of IRAN. 2009;27(3):295-30. (In Persian).

Vatandoost H, Hanafi AA, Jafari R. Guideline of the important arthropods in Medicine. Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 1380. (In Persian).

Dehghani R. Hemiscorpius lepturus and Hemiscorpius lepturus sting (Biology, Ecology, and Control). 1385. (In Persian).

Dehghani R, Fathi B. Scorpion sting in Iran: a review. Toxicon. 2012 Oct 1;60(5):919-33.

Dehghani R, Dorudgar A, Khademi MR, Sayah M. Evaluation of Hemiscorpius lepturus stings in Kashan. J Esfahan Uni Med Sci. 1998;59(2):132-5. (In Persian).

Kassiri H, Kassiri A, Sharififard M, Shojaee S, Lotfi M, Kasiri E. Scorpion envenomation study in Behbahan County, southwest Iran. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine. 2014;2(5):416-20.

Chowell G, Díaz-Dueñas P, Bustos-Saldaña R, Mireles AA, Fet V. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of scorpionism in Colima, Mexico (2000–2001). Toxicon. 2006 Jun 1;47(7):753-8.

Brunda G, Sashidhar RB. Epidemiological profile of snake-bite cases from Andhra Pradesh using an immunoanalytical approach. Indian journal of medical research. 2007 May 1;125(5):661-8.

Entomology and Applied Science Letters is an international double-blind peer reviewed publication which publishes scientific research & review articles related to insects that contain information of interest to a wider audience, e.g. papers bearing on the theoretical, genetic, agricultural, medical and biodiversity issues. Emphasis is also placed on the selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance. In addition to full-length research articles and reviews, the journal publishes interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, and Letters to the Editor. The journal publishes reports on all phases of medical entomology and medical acarology, including the systematics and biology of insects, acarines, and other arthropods of public health and veterinary significance.

Announcement and Advertisement
Announcements regarding scientific activities such as conferences, symposium, are published for free. Advertisements can be either published or placed on website as banners.
open access
Entomology and Applied Science Letters supports the submission of entomological papers that contain information of interest to a wider reader groups e. g. papers bearing on taxonomy, phylogeny, biodiversity, ecology, systematic, agriculture, morphology. The selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance is also important. Distinguished entomologists drawn from different parts of the world serve as honorary members of the Editorial Board. The journal encompasses all the varied aspects of entomological research.