Creative Commons License 2018 Volume 5 Issue 3

Mosquito Diversity and Public Services as Risk Factors for Emerging Diseases in a Small Village, Ecuador Amazon

Ana-Belén Ortega, Paúl Duque, Jonathan Liria, Jazzmin Arrivillaga-Henríquez, José Salazar, Elena Burgaleta Burgaleta, Juan-Carlos Navarro

The creation and/or extension of urbanisms towards jungle areas, deficiencies in public services, tourism, hunting practices and exploitation of natural resources have been important factors that influenced the epidemic outbreaks of arboviruses in the Amazon. Limoncocha is a small population of the Kichwa ethnic group created in the 1950's by the Linguistic Summer Institute, with a current population of about 1,500 inhabitants, immersed in the Biological Reserve of Limoncocha, RAMSAR (1998). A systematic, stratified and random sampling of 80% of the total inhabited houses (65 dwellings) was carried out, using entomological sampling and surveys on socio-environmental factors. A direct relationship between the deficiency of public services and the breeding of urban and jungle vectors was found, this allowed estimating the vulnerability and risk factors present for the local transmission of arboviruses in the community. The analysis suggested that the population had the permanent water for consumption through different routes, but only 8% of homes had the potable water pipe system, and half of these households had daily interruptions in their supply. 90% stored water collected from rivers and streams, in useful containers of low volumes, such as buckets and face-washers, from tankers, cisterns, and wells. A third of the homes (25%) did not have a waste collection service, 40% of the ones with the service, did not remove the inorganic ones, which represented 60% of the positive recipients for mosquitoes. The index of the positive containers per household was low (0.5, max = 4, min = 0). The breeding pattern was determined by the waste containers with mainly sylvan species. The low aedic index (1.5%), suggested a low colonization by Aedes aegypti in the locality, and that the cases of Dengue/Chikungunya reported were not of the local transmission, having the greatest vulnerability, and the possible translocation of sylvatic pathogens from the biological reserves by sylvatic vectors through the ecotone-periphery-center of the village gradient.


Weaver SC. Urbanization and geographic expansion of zoonotic arboviral diseases: mechanisms and potential strategies for prevention. Trends Microbiol [Internet]. 2013 Aug [cited 2014 Jul 11];21(8):360–3. Available from:

Forshey BM, Guevara C, Laguna-Torres VA, Cespedes M, Vargas J, Gianella A, et al. Arboviral etiologies of acute febrile illnesses in western south America, 2000-2007. Halstead SB, editor. PLoS Negl Trop Dis [Internet]. 2010 Aug 10 [cited 2016 Jul 12];4(8):2000–7. Available from:

Vasconcelos PF, Travassos da Rosa a P, Rodrigues SG, Travassos da Rosa ES, Dégallier N, Travassos da Rosa JF. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses. Cad saude publica / Minist da Saude, Fund Oswaldo Cruz, Esc Nac Saude Publica. 2001;17 Suppl:155–64.

Cleton N, Koopmans M, Reimerink J, Godeke GJ, Reusken C. Come fly with me: Review of clinically important arboviruses for global travelers. J Clin Virol [Internet]. 2012;55(3):191–203. Available from:

Sáez VS, Suárez LAC. Dengue in northeastern Venezuela and its incidence in extreme rainfall conditions during 2009 and 2010. Geographical research. 2013; (59): 171-82.

Barrera R, Avila JL, Navarro JC. Population dynamics of Aedes aegypti (L.) in urban areas with deficient supply of potable water. Acta Biológica Venez. 1996;16:23–35.

Barrera R, Navarro JC, Mora Rodriguez JD, Dominguez D, Gonzalez Garcia JE. Public services deficiencies and breeding of Aedes aegypti in Venezuela. Bol PAHO. 1995;118(5):410–423.

Muñoz M, Navarro JC. Mayaro: A re-emerging arbovirus in Venezuela and latin America. Biomedica. 2012;32(2):286-302.

Muñoz-Rodríguez M, Arrivillaga J, Navarro J. Cases of Yellow Fever in Portuguesa, Venezuela: a spurious jungle outbreak? Rev Biomed. 2010; 21 (3): 163-77.

Neumayr A, Gabriel M, Fritz J, Günther S, Hatz C, Schmidt-Chanasit J, et al. Mayaro virus infection in traveler returning from Amazon Basin, Northern Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012; 18 (4): 695-6.

Salim Mattar V, Marco González T. Oropuche virus: A virus present but ignored. Rev MVZ Cordoba. 2015;20(3):4675–6.

Weaver SC, Forrester NL. Chikungunya: Evolutionary history and recent epidemic spread. Antiviral Res [Internet]. 2015 Aug [cited 2016 Jul 12];120:32–9. Available from:

Vasconcelos PFC, Calisher CH. Emergence of Human Arboviral Diseases in the Americas, 2000-2016. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis [Internet]. 2016 May [cited 2016 Jul 13];16(5):1–7. Available from:

National Direction of Epidemiological Surveillance. Yearbook of Epidemiological Surveillance 1994-2016. Ministry of Public Health.

Navarro JC, Arrivillaga J, Morales D, Ponce P, Cevallos V. Rapid assessment of mosquito biodiversity (Diptera: Culicidae) and environmental health risk in a Montana area of the Ecuadorian Chocó. Entomotropica. 2015; 30 (16): 160-73.

Ministry of the Environment. System of Classification of the Ecosystems of the Continental Equator. Quito: Ed. Subsecretaría de Patrimonio Natural; 2012. 232 p.

Konecki KT, Kacperczyk A, Chomczynski P, Albarracín M. The spirit of communitarianism and the cultural background of the Limoncocha community in the context of sustainable development. Universidad Internacional SEK, editor. Quito: Editorial UISEK; 2013.

Armas M, Lasso S. Plan of Management of the Limoncocha Biological Reserve. 2011.

Belkin J. Mosquito studies (Diptera, Culicidae) I : a project for a systematic study of the mosquitoes of Middle America. II. Methods for the collection, rearing and preservation of mosquitoes. Contrib / Am Entomol Inst. 1965;1(2):1–78.

Navarro JC, Liria J, Pinango H, Barrera R. Biogeographic area relationships in venezuela: A parsimony analysis of culicidae-phytotelmata distribution in national parks. Zootaxa. 2007;19(1547):1–19.

Stewart-Ibarra AM, Muñoz ÁG, Ryan SJ, Ayala EB, Borbor-Cordova MJ, Finkelstein JL, et al. Spatiotemporal clustering, climate periodicity, and social-ecological risk factors for dengue during an outbreak in Machala, Ecuador, in 2010. BMC Infect Dis [Internet]. 2014 Dec 25;14(1):610. Available from:

Gomes da Costa V, Christina de Rezende Féres V, Vogel Saivish M, Bosco de Lima Gimaque J, Lázaro Moreli M. Silent emergence of Mayaro and Oropouche viruses in humans in Central Brazil. Int J Infect Dis [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2018 May 28];62:84–5. Available from:

Rodríguez-Morales AJ, Paniz-Mondolfi AE, Villamil-Gómez WE, Navarro JC. Mayaro, Oropouche and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis viruses: Following in the footsteps of Zika? Travel Med Infect Dis [Internet]. 2017 Jan 5 [cited 2017 Feb 15];15:72–3. Available from:

Navarrro JC, Enríquez S, Arrivillaga J, Benitez-Ortiz W. A new Aedes for the Amazon of Ecuador and taxonomic update of the genus for the country. Bol Malariol Health Amb. 2016; 56 (2): 68-71.

Arregui G, Enriquez S, Benítez-Ortiz W, Navarro J-C. Taxonomía molecular de Anopheles del Ecuador mediante ADN mitocondrial (Citocromo c Oxidasa I) y optimización por parsimonia. Bol Malariol y Salud Ambient. 2015;55(2):128-136.

Navarro JC, Enríquez S, Duque P, Campaña Y, Benítez-Ortiz W. New Sabethes (Diptera : Culicidae) species records for Ecuador, from Colonso-Chalupas biological reserve, province of Napo (Amazon). J Entomol Zool Stud. 2015;3(4):169–72.

Navarro JC, Enríquez S, Duque P, Campaña Y, Benítez-Ortíz W. New mosquito species records for Ecuador, from Pululahua volcano (Andes) and Napo province (Amazon). J Entomol Zool Stud. 2015;3(6):392–6.

Navarro J, Ponce P, Cevallos V. Dos nuevos registros de vectores potenciales de Fiebre Amarilla selvática y Mayaro para el Ecuador Two new records of potential Sylvan Yellow Fever and Mayaro species vectors from. Bol Malariol Salud Amb. 2013;LIII(1):77–81.

CDC. Arbovirus Catalog - CDC Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) [Internet]. [cited 2018 Jul 21]. Available from:

Eastwood G, Kramer LD, Goodman SJ, Cunningham A a. West Nile Virus Vector Competency of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes in the Galapagos Islands. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85(3):426–33.

Quintero L, Navarro J-C. Intraspecific phylogeny and genetic variability of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) with mitochondrial genes ND5 and IOC. Bol Malariol and Salud Ambient [Internet]. 2012; 52 (1): 46-65. Available from:

Bataille A, Cunningham AA, Cedeño V, Patiño L, Constantinou A, Kramer LD, et al. Natural colonization and adaptation of a mosquito species in Galapagos and its implications for disease threats to endemic wildlife. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA [Internet]. 2009 Jun 23 [cited 2016 Sep 22];106(25):10230–5. Available from:

Suaza-Vasco J, López-Rubio A, Galeano J, Uribe S, Vélez I, Porter C. The Sabethines of Northern Andean Coffee-Growing Regions of Colombia. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2015;31(2):125–34.

Zavortink T. The new sabethine genus Johnbelkinia and a preliminary reclassification of the composite genus Trichoprosopon. Contrib Am Entomol Inst. 1979;17(1):p1-61.

Johnson BW, Cruz C, Felices V, Espinoza WR, Manock SR, Guevara C, et al. Ilheus virus isolate from a human, Ecuador [12]. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(6):956–8.

Manock SR, Jacobsen KH, De Bravo NB, Russell KL, Negrete M, Olson JG, et al. Etiology of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in the Amazon basin of Ecuador. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81(1):146–51.

Entomology and Applied Science Letters is an international peer reviewed publication which publishes scientific research & review articles related to insects that contain information of interest to a wider audience, e.g. papers bearing on the theoretical, genetic, agricultural, medical and biodiversity issues. Emphasis is also placed on the selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance. Papers on non-insect groups are no longer accepted. In addition to full-length research articles and reviews, the journal publishes interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, and Letters to the Editor. The journal publishes reports on all phases of medical entomology and medical acarology, including the systematics and biology of insects, acarines, and other arthropods of public health and veterinary significance.
Issue 3 Volume 10 - 2023
Call for Papers
Entomology and Applied Science Letters supports the submission of entomological papers that contain information of interest to a wider reader groups e. g. papers bearing on taxonomy, phylogeny, biodiversity, ecology, systematic, agriculture, morphology. The selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance is also important. Distinguished entomologists drawn from different parts of the world serve as honorary members of the Editorial Board. The journal encompasses all the varied aspects of entomological research. This has become the need felt in scientific research due to the emphasis on intra-, inter-, and multi-disciplinary approach.