Introduction and Objectives: Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is an acute viral hemorrhagic zoonotic disease that is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites or contact with infected livestock. The primary RVF vectors are Aedes species. Other mosquitoes such as Culex, Anopheles and Mansonia are considered secondary vectors. RVF is important from a public health and economic perspectives. Africa and the Middle East have been identified as a primary foci for RVF. Neighboring Iran, Saudi Arabia is one of the endemic foci for the RVF. According to a recent report pointing to RVF incidents observed among ruminants in Kurdistan Province, Iran, this study was conducted to evaluate the status of this disease and its possible occurrence in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, the websites of reputable medicine and health journals, as well as scientific databases were searched to find relevant articles using many keywords. Out of 111 articles, finally, 77 cases were selected and analyzed according to the aim of the study or RVF status in Iran. Results: In 2016, the first RVF positive serological report in animals in Iran was carried out in Kurdistan Province, indicating the risk of animal exposure to the virus. According to the observation of RVF cases in animals, the risk of human RVF cases in Iran has also increased. Annual travels of people to neighboring countries increase the probability of the RVF virus entering to Iranian society. Conclusions: Given the geographical location and proximity to the foci of primary disease, the risk of RVF endemicity in Iran is extremely high. Every year, a large number of people travel back and forth between Saudi Arabia (an active disease hotspot) and Iran, and large quantities of meat and livestock are exported from Saudi Arabia to Iran. In light of the specified issues and positive serological report of RVF in cattle and sheep in Iran, the necessity of careful supervision, planning, and monitoring to prevent the entry of human cases to the country or spreading the disease becomes apparent.
FAO. Rift valley fever threatens livelihood in the horn of Africa: Empress Transbound Anim Dis Bull. 2000; 15. available at: http://www.fao.org/3/y0482E/y0482e04.htm.
Huiskonen JT, Overby AK, Weber F, Grunewald K. Electron cryo-microscopy and single-particle averaging of Rift Valley fever virus: evidence for GN-GC glycoprotein heter-odimers. J Virol. 2009; 83(8): 3762-9.
Peters CJ, Linthicum KJ. Rift Valley fever. Beran GW, ed. CRC Handbook Series in Zoon-oses. Section B: Viral Zoonoses, 2nd Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc. 1994: 125–138.
Daubney R, Hudson JR, Garnham PC. Enzootic hepatitis or Rift Valley fever: an undescribed virus disease of sheep, cattle, and man from East Africa. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1931; 34: 545–579.
Kahen CM. The Merck Veterinary Manual. 9th Edn. White House Station, New Jersey, USA. 2005; 617-619.
Smith P. Large animal internal medicine. 4th Edn. Mousy Elsevier, Davis, California. 2009; 919.
Cêtre-Sossah C, Pédarrieu A, Guis H, Defernez C, Bouloy M, Favre J, Girard S, Cardinale E, Albina E. Prevalence of Rift Valley fever among ruminants, Mayotte. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012; 18(6): 972.
World Health Organization. Rift valley fever. Geneva: WHO. ww.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/ fs207/en/.
World Health Organization. A brief guide to emerging infectious diseases and zoonoses. New Delhi. 2014: Available at http://www.searo.who.int/entity/emerging_diseas-es/ebola/a_brief_guide_emerging_infectious_diseases.pdf?ua=1.
Al-Hazmi M, Ayoola EA, Abdurahman M, Banzal S, Ashraf J, El-Bushra A, Hazmi A, Ab-dullah M, Abbo H, Elamin A, Al-Sammani ET. Epidemic Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia: a clinical study of severe illness in humans. Clin Infect Dis. 2003; 36(3): 245-52.
Nicholas DE, Jacobsen KH, Waters NM. Risk factors associated with human Rift Valley fe-ver infection: systematic review and me-ta‐analysis. Trop Med Int Health. 2014; 19(12): 1420-9.
Archer BN, Weyer J, Paweska J, et al. Outbreak of Rift Valley fever affecting veterinarians and farmers in South Africa, 2008. S Afr Med J. 2011; 101: 263–266.
Chevalier V, Thiongane Y, Lancelot R. Endem-ic transmission of Rift Valley fever in Senegal. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2009; 56(9‐10): 372-4.
Turell MJ, Saluzzo JF, Tammariello RF, Smith JF. Generation and transmission of Rift Valley fever viral reassortants by the mosquito Cu-lex pipiens. J Gen Virol. 1990; 71(10): 2307-12.
Turell MJ, Perkins PV. Transmission of Rift Valley fever virus by the sand fly, Phleboto-mus duboscqi (Diptera: Psychodidae). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1990; 42(2): 185-8.
DJ, Rowton ED, Lawyer PG, O’Guinn M, Turell MJ. Laboratory transmission of Rift Valley fe-ver virus by Phlebotomus duboscqi, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus sergenti, and Sergentomyia schwetzi (Diptera: Psycho-didae). J Med Entomol. 2000; 37(3): 435-8.
Sang R, Arum S, Chepkorir E, Mosomtai G, Tigoi C, Sigei F, et al. Distribution and abun-dance of key vectors of Rift Valley fever and other arboviruses in two ecologically distinct counties in Kenya. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017; 11(2): e0005341.
Hoch AL, Gargan II TP, Bailey CL. Mechanical transmission of Rift Valley fever virus by hematophagous Diptera. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1985; 34(1):188-93.
Jupp PG, Kemp A, Grobbelaar AA, Leman P, Burt FJ, Alahmed AM, et al. The 2000 epidem-ic of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia: mos-quito vector studies. Med Vet Entomol. 2002; 16: 245–52.
Shoemaker T, Boulianne C, Vincet MJ, Pezza-nite L, AlQahtani MM, Al Mazrou Y, et al. Ge-netic analysis of viruses associated with emergence of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Yemen 2000–2001. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002; 8: 1415–20.
Chinikar S, Nariman Sh, Mostafavi E, Moradi M, Khakifirouz S, Jalali T, Fooks Ar. Surveil-lance of Rift Valley fever In Iran between 2001 and 2011. The All Results Journals: Biol. 2013; 4(2): 16-8.
Fakour S, Naserabadi S, Ahmadi E. The first positive serological study on Rift Valley fever in ruminants of Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 2017; 54(4): 348.
Woods CW, Karpati AM, Grein T, McCarthy N, Gaturuku P, Muchiri E, Dunster L, Henderson A, Khan AS, Swanepoel R, Bonmarin I. An out-break of Rift Valley fever in Northeastern Kenya, 1997-98. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002; 8(2): 138-144.
Madani TA, Al-Mazrou YY, Al-Jeffri MH, Mishkhas AA, Al-Rabeah AM, Turkistani AM, Al-Sayed MO, Abodahish AA, Khan AS, Ksiaz-ek TG , Shobokshi O. Rift Valley fever epi-demic in Saudi Arabia: epidemiological, clini-cal, and laboratory characteristics. Cli. Infect Dis. 2003; 37(8): 1084–1092.
Balkhy HH, Memish ZA. Rift Valley fever: An uninvited zoonosis in the Arabian Peninsula. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2003; 21: 153–157.
Rolin AI, Berrang-Ford L, Kulkarni MA. The risk of Rift Valley fever virus introduction and establishment in the United States and the European Union. Emerg Microb Infect. 2013; 2(1):1-8.
Marrama L, Spiegel A, Ndiaye K, Sall AA, Gomes E, Diallo M, et al. Domestic transmis-sion of Rift Valley Fever virus in Diawara (Senegal) in 1998. 2005; 36(6). 1487-95
Swanepoel R, Coetzer JAW. Rift Valley fever. In: Coetzer JAW, ThomsonGR, Tustin RC, eds. Infectious disease of livestock, vol 1. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994: 688–717.
Peters CJ. The emergence of Rift Valley fever. In: JF Saluzzo, Dodet B, eds. Factors in the emergence of arbovirus disease. Paris: Else-vier, 1997: 253–63.
Daubney R, Hudson JR, Garnham PC. Enzootic hepatitis or Rift Valley fever: an undescribed virus of sheep, cattle, and man from East Af-rica. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1931; 34:545–9.
US Centers for Disease Control and Preven-tion. Update: outbreak of Rift Valley fever —Saudi Arabia, August–November 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000; 49:982–5.
Laughlin LW, Meegan JM, Strausbaugh LJ, Morens DM, Watten H.Epidemic Rift Valley fever in Egypt: observations of the spectrum of human illness. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1979; 73: 630–3.
CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Preven-tion. Outbreak of Rift Valley fever—Saudi Arabia, August–October, 2000. MMWR Morb MortalWkly Rep. 2000; 49: 905–8.
Aradaib IE, Erickson BR, Elageb RM, Khristo-va ML, Carroll SA, Elkhidir IM, Karsany ME, Karrar AE, Elbashir MI, Nichol ST. Rift valley fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013; 19(2):246.
Jost CC, Nzietchueng S, Kihu S, Bett B, Njogu G, Swai ES, Mariner JC. Epidemiological as-sessment of the Rift Valley fever outbreak in Kenya and Tanzania in 2006 and 2007. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010; 83(2_Suppl):65-72.
Anyamba A, Linthicum KJ, Small J, Britch SC, Pak E, de La Rocque S, Formenty P, Hightower AW, Breiman RF, Chretien JP, Tucker CJ. Pre-diction, assessment of the Rift Valley fever activity in East and Southern Africa 2006–2008 and possible vector control strategies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010; 83(2_Suppl):43-51.
Baba M, Masiga DK, Sang R, Villinger J. Has Rift Valley fever virus evolved with increas-ing severity in human populations in East Af-rica? Emerg Microb Infect. 2016; 5(1): 1-0.
Arishi H, Ageel A, Rahman MA, Hazmi AA, Arishi AR, Ayoud Menon, et al. Outbreak of Rift Valley fever- Saudi Arabia, August–October, 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000; 49: 905–908.
Dehghani R, Shahrisvand B, Mostafaii GR, Atharizadeh M, Gilasi H, Rezaee Mofrad MR, Hosseindoost GR, Takhtfiroozeh M. Frequen-cy of Arthropoda in urban Wastes compost Process at Laboratory condition. J Ent Res. 2016; 40: 357-64.
Chevalier V, Pepin M, Plee L, Lancelot R. Rift Valley fever — a threat for Europe? Euro Sur-veill; 2010; 15: 19506.
Turell MJ, Dohm DJ, Geden CJ, Hogsette JA, Linthicum KJ. Potential for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) to transmit Rift Valley fever virus. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2010; 26: 445–448.
Davies FG, Highton RB. Possible vectors of Rift Valley fever in Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1980; 74: 815–816.
Henderson BE, McCrae AWR, Kirya BG, Ssenkubuge Y, Sempala SDK. Arbovirus epi-zootics affecting man, mosquitoes and verte-brates at Lunyo, Uganda 1968. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1972; 66: 343–355.
Davies FG, Highton RB. Possible vectors of Rift Valley fever in Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1980; 74:815–816.
Fontenille D, Traore-Lamizana M, Diallo M, Thonnon J, Digoutte JP, Zeller HG. New vec-tors of Rift Valley fever in West Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998; 4: 289–293.
Lee VH. Isolation of viruses from field popu-lations of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogo-nidae) in Nigeria, J Med Entomol 1979; 16: 76–79.
Van Velden DJJ, Meyer JD, Olivier J. Rift Val-ley fever affecting humans in South Africa. A clinic pathological study. S Afr Med J. 1977; 51: 867–871.
Gargan TP 2nd, Clark GG, Dohm DJ, Turell MJ, Bailey CL. Vector potential of selected North American mosquito species for Rift Valley fe-ver virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988; 38: 440–446
Turell MJ, Wilson WC, Bennett KE. Potential for North American mosquitoes (Dip-tera:Culicidae) to transmit Rift Valley fever virus. J Med Entomol. 2010; 47: 884–889.
Dehghani R, Zarghi I, Aboutalebi M, Barzegari Z, Ghanbari M. Fauna and habitat of aquatic arthropods of Kashan in 2010. Bangladesh J Med Sci. 2014; 13(3): 306.
Dehghani R, Miranzadeh MB, Yosefzadeh M, Zamani S. Fauna aquatic insects in sewage maturation ponds of Kashan University of Medical Science 2005. Pakistan J Biol Sci. 2007; 10(6): 928-31.
Dehghani R, Akbari H, Vazirianzadeh B. A prospective study on the seasonal frequen-cies of insect bites (Diptera: Culicidae and Phlebotominae) and the related environmen-tal and protective method factors in the city of Kashan, central of Iran, 2009. Pakistan J Med Sci. 2012; 28(1): 158-161.
Dehghani R, Takhtfiroozeh M, Kanani F, Asla-ni S. Case report of Stomoxys calcitrans bites in residential area of Kashan, Iran. J Mazanda-ran Univ Med Sci. 2014; 23 (110): 257-61.
Dehghani R, Mohegh S, Moalemi A, Zamini G. Tick-biting of the Hyalomma spp. as a vector of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF): Case Report. J Mil Med. 2019; 21 (2): 109-114.
Kassiri H, Amani H. Bionomics and Breeding Places of the Genus Anopheles (Diptera: Cu-licidae) in Mahroo and Sepid-Dasht Districts, Luristan Province, Western Iran. Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2012; 14(8): 11-17.
Amani H, Yaghoobi Ershadi MR. Kassiri H. Fauna, Abundance, Distribution and Seasonal Activity of Anopheles Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Larval habitats. J Medical Hor-mozgan. 2013; 17 (2): 133-143.
Amani H, Yaghoobi Ershadi MR. Kassiri H. The ecology and larval habitats characteris-tics of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Cu-licidae) in Aligudarz County (Luristan prov-ince, western Iran). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2014; 4(Suppl 1): S233-S241.
Hanafi-Bojd AA, Azari-Hamidian S, Vatan-doost H, Charrahy Z. Spatio-temporal distri-bution of malaria vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) across different climatic zones of Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011; 4(6): 498-504.
Sedaghat MM, Harbach RE. An annotated checklist of the Anopheles mosquitoes (Dip-tera: Culicidae) in Iran. J Vec Ecol. 2005; 30: 272-276.
Azari-Hamidian S. Checklist of Iranian mos-quitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), J Vec Ecol. 2007; 32 (2): 235-242.
Azari-Hamidian S, Norouzia B, Harbach RE. A detailed review of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Iran and their medical and veter-inary importance. Acta Tropica. 2019; 194: 106-122.
Peyre M, Chevalier V, Abdo‐Salem S, Velthuis A, Antoine‐Moussiaux N, Thiry E, Roger F. A systematic scoping study of the so-cio‐economic impact of Rift Valley fever: re-search gaps and needs. Zoonoses Public Health. 2015; 62(5): 309-25.
Boshra H, Lorenzo G, Busquets N, Brun A. Rift valley fever: recent insights into pathogenesis and prevention. J Virol. 2011; 85(13): 6098-105.
Ikegami T, Makino S. Rift valley fever vac-cines. Vaccine. 2009; 27: 69-72.
Niklasson B. Rift Valley fever virus vaccine trial: study of side-effects in humans. Scand J Infect Dis. 1982; 14(2): 105-9.
Shope RE, Peters CJ, Davies FG. The spread of Rift Valley fever and approaches to its con-trol. Bull World Health Organization. 1982; 60 (3): 299.
Saleh AS, Mohammed KA, Hassan M, Bucci TJ, Meegan JM. Antibodies to Rift Valley fever vi-rus in the human population of Sudan. Anti-bodies to Rift Valley fever virus in the human population of Sudan.1981; 75(1): 129-30.
Gavinelli A, Kennedy T, Simonin D. The ap-plication of humane slaughterhouse practices to large-scale culling. Revue Scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics). 2014; 33(1): 291-301.
Chevalier V. Relevance of Rift Valley fever to public health in the European Union. Clin Mi-crobiol Infect. 2013; 19(8): 705-8.
Arum SO, Weldon CW, Orindi B, Landmann T, Tchouassi DP, Affognon HD, Sang R. Distribu-tion and diversity of the vectors of Rift Valley fever along the livestock movement routes in the northeastern and coastal regions of Kenya. Parasite Vector. 2015; 8(1): 294.
Bird BH, Nichol ST. Breaking the chain: Rift Valley fever virus control via livestock vac-cination. Curr Opin Virol. 2012; 2(3): 315-23.
Nanyingi MO, Muchemi GM, Thumbi SM, Ade F, Onyango CO, Kiama SG, Bett B. Seroepide-miological survey of Rift Valley fever virus in ruminants in Garissa, Kenya. Vector-Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2017; 17(2): 141-6.
Ochieng AO, Nanyingi M, Kipruto E, Ondiba IM, Amimo FA, Oludhe C, Olago DO, Nya-mongo IK, Estambale BB. Ecological niche modelling of Rift Valley fever virus vectors in Baringo, Kenya. Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2016; 6(1): 32322.
Redding DW, Tiedt S, Lo Iacono G, Bett B, Jones KE. Spatial, seasonal and climatic pre-dictive models of Rift Valley fever disease across Africa. Philos T R Soc B. 2017; 372(1725): 20160165.
Hightower A, Kinkade C, Nguku PM, Anyangu A, Mutonga D, Omolo J, Njenga MK, Feikin DR, Schnabel D, Ombok M, Breiman RF. Rela-tionship of climate, geography, and geology to the incidence of Rift Valley fever in Kenya during the 2006–2007 outbreak. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012; 86(2): 373-80.
Allam IH, Feinsod FM, Scott RM, Peters CJ, Saah AJ, Ghaffar SA, el Said S, Darwish MA. Rift Valley fever surveillance in mobile sheep flocks in the Nile Delta. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1986; 35(5): 1055-60.
Munyua PM, Murithi RM, Ithondeka P, High-tower A, Thumbi SM, Anyangu SA, Kiplimo J, Bett B, Vrieling A, Breiman RF, Njenga MK. Predictive factors and risk mapping for Rift Valley fever epidemics in Kenya. PLoS One. 2016; 11(1).