Creative Commons License 2016 Volume 3 Issue 2

Effect of N fertiliser on soil respiration and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield

Xingli Lu, Xingneng Lu, Sikander Khan Tanveer, Xiaoxia Wen, Yuncheng Liao

N fertiliser could indirectly influence soil respiration through modifying plant production and soil properties. However, there is limited information jointly researching soil respiration and wheat yield at different N levels in the Loess Plateau in China. The aim of this experiment was to study the influence of N levels on soil CO2 emission and wheat yield to N levels in a winter wheat field in northwest China from October 2012 to June 2013, and from October 2013 to June 2014. A static chamber technique was applied to quantify the soil respiration, the quantities of five N levels (kg N ha-1) were 0 (N0), 80 (N1), 160 (N2), 240 (N3), and 320 (N4). Results presented that soil CO2 emission showed a strong seasonal trend, with the highest values recorded at anthesis stage and the lowest values was measured at wintering stage. The accumulated soil respiration was 3.1 t CO2-C ha-1 in N0, N1, N2, N3, and N4 treatments significantly increased soil CO2 emissions by 27%, 46%, 66%, and 120% when compared to N0 treatment. Soil CO2 emission showed a significant positive exponential relationship with soil temperature. The temperature sensitivity of respiration (Q10) was reduced from 2.37 in group N0 to 1.74 with the N4 treatment. Whereas no relationship was recorded between soil respiration and soil water content. Although N fertiliser significantly (P < 0.05) increased grain yields by 2 % to 5 %, no difference was recorded between N1 and N2, and between N3 and N4 treatments. The yield-scaled CO2 emissions were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in N levels than in N0 treatment. Our results suggested that N fertilizer could increase soil respiration and yield-scaled CO2 emissions in wheat field, but the magnitude thereof may vary according to the levels of N fertiliser addition.


Keywords: soil CO2 emission, soil temperature, yield-scaled CO2 emissions, no tillage


M. Rastogi, S. Singh and H. Pathak, Current Science 2002, 82, 510-517.

J.M. Duxbury, Fertilizer Research 1994, 38, 151-163.

B. Bond-Lamberty and A. Thomson, Nature 2010, 464, 579-582.

B. Erhagen, U. Ilstedt and M.B. Nilsson, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 2015, 80, 45-52.

A. Rodrigo, S. Recous, C. Neel and B. Mary, Ecological Modelling 1997, 102, 325-339.

X. Chen, X. Wang, M. Liebman, M. Cavigelli and M. Wander, Plos One 2014, 9, e103720.

F. Morell, J. Álvaro-Fuentes, J. Lampurlanés and C. Cantero-Martínez, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 2010, 139, 167-173.

W. Jin, M. Li and Y. He, Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology 2015, 39, 249-257[in Chinese].

K.S. Ramirez, J.M. Craine and N. Fierer, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 2010, 42, 2336-2338.

Z. Sun, L. Liu, Y. Ma, G. Yin, C. Zhao, Y. Zhang and S. Piao, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 2014, 197, 103-110.

G. Huang, Y.E. Cao, B. Wang and Y. Li, Science of The Total Environment 2015a, 515, 215-224.

G. Huang, Y. Li and Y.G. Su, Geoderma 2015b, 251, 55-64.

E.A. Davidson and I.A. Janssens, Nature 2006, 440, 165-173.

W. Ding, H. Yu, Z. Cai, F. Han and Z. Xu, Geoderma 2010, 155, 381-389.

X. Jin, J. Bai and Y. Zhou, Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B–Soil and Plant Science 2010, 60, 480-484.

X. Jia, M.A. Shao and X. Wei, Plant and Soil 2013, 373, 125-141.

J. Mo, W. Zhang, W. Zhu, P. Gundersen, Y. Fang, D. Li and H. Wang, Global Change Biology 2008, 14, 403-412.

Y. Tong, Y. Zhao, H. Zhao, H. Fan, Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science 2007, 13, 64-69[in Chinese].

X. Yang, Y. Lu, Y. Tong, W. Lin and T. Liang, Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science 2013, 19, 65-73[in Chinese].

H. Zhang, J. Zhou, R. Liu, P. Zhang, X. Zheng and S. Li, Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science 2011, 17, 1-8 [in Chinese].

X. Lu, X. Lu, S.K. Tanveer, X. Wen and Y. Liao Y, Soil Research 2015

L. Yang, Y.L. Liao, M.S. Gao and T.S. Khan, Acta Agriculturae Boreali-occidentalis Sinica 2011, 20, 70-75[in Chinese].

S.K. Tanveer, X. Wen, X.L. Lu, J. Zhang, Y. Liao, Plos One 2013, 8, e72140.

J.C. Zadoks, T.T. Chang and C.F. Konzak, Weed Research 1974, 14, 415-421.

P. Steduto, Ö. Çetinkökü, R. Albrizio and R. Kanber, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 2002, 111, 171-186.

Y. Kuzyakov and W. Cheng, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 2001, 33, 1915-1925.

Q. Deng, X. Cheng, G. Zhou, J. Liu, S. Liu, Q. Zhang and D. Zhang, Ecological Engineering 2013, 61, 65-73.

Q. Gao, N.J. Hasselquist, S. Palmroth, Z. Zheng and W. You, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 2014, 76, 297-300.

R. Shao, L. Deng, Q. Yang and Z. Shangguan, Soil and Tillage Research 2014, 143, 164-171.

C. Zhang, D. Niu, S.J. Hall, H. Wen, X. Li, H. Fu, C. Wan and J.J. Elser, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 2014, 75, 113-123.

Entomology and Applied Science Letters is an international double-blind peer reviewed publication which publishes scientific research & review articles related to insects that contain information of interest to a wider audience, e.g. papers bearing on the theoretical, genetic, agricultural, medical and biodiversity issues. Emphasis is also placed on the selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance. In addition to full-length research articles and reviews, the journal publishes interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, and Letters to the Editor. The journal publishes reports on all phases of medical entomology and medical acarology, including the systematics and biology of insects, acarines, and other arthropods of public health and veterinary significance.

Announcement and Advertisement
Announcements regarding scientific activities such as conferences, symposium, are published for free. Advertisements can be either published or placed on website as banners.
open access
Entomology and Applied Science Letters supports the submission of entomological papers that contain information of interest to a wider reader groups e. g. papers bearing on taxonomy, phylogeny, biodiversity, ecology, systematic, agriculture, morphology. The selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance is also important. Distinguished entomologists drawn from different parts of the world serve as honorary members of the Editorial Board. The journal encompasses all the varied aspects of entomological research.