2020 Volume 7 Issue 4

Coronary Heart Diseases: Impact of increasing awareness through educational & Fitness Programs


Syed Ibrahim, Syed Azhar Ahmed, Syed Muneer Ahmed, Syed Kaleem Ah-med
Abstract

The main objective of the investigation was to know the impact of increasing awareness through educational & Fitness Programs on the Coronary Heart Diseases. 120 students between 18-22 years were distributed into four groups. Group 1 was designated as educational awareness program (n= 30), Group 2 as a fitness awareness program, (n= 30), Group 3 as educational plus fitness awareness program (n= 30), and Group 4 as the control group (n= 30). The three investigational groups undertook their corresponding training program for a period of 8 weeks three times per week and 60 minutes per session. Pre- and post-test were conducted for height, BMI, waist rip ratio, waist circumference, hip circumferences, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides. The mean, SD, t-test, and ANCOVA were the statistical tools used for the analysis of data and the significance level was 0.05. The results showed a significant improvement in the experimental groups in BMI (G1 to G3, P < 0.05) and in the waist to hip ratio (G2 & G3, P < 0.05). G1 did not show any accomplishment in the waist to hip ratio (P>0.05). All three experimental groups (G1 to G3) exhibited surges in coronary heart disease risk factors (P > 0.05). G4 did not display any change in all the study variables (P< 0.05). It was concluded that to reduce the risk factor of heart diseases both the education cum activity intervention programs will be highly beneficial.


How to cite this article
Ibrahim S, Ahmed S A, Ahmed S M, Ah-med S K. Coronary Heart Diseases: Impact of increasing awareness through educational & Fitness Programs. Entomol appl sci lett 2020;7(4):18-27

Coronary Heart Diseases: Impact of increasing awareness through educational & Fitness Programs

 

Syed Ibrahim1*, Syed Azhar Ahmed2, Syed Muneer Ahmed3, Syed Kaleem Ahmed4

 

1 Physical Education Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia.

2 Freelance Physiotherapist, Hyderabad, Telangana, India- 500004.

3 Tennis Coach, GHMC, Hyderabad, Telangana, India- 500004.

4 Freelance Tennis Coach, Hyderabad, Telangana, India, 500004.


ABSTRACT

The main objective of the investigation was to know the impact of increasing awareness through educational & Fitness Programs on the Coronary Heart Diseases. 120 students between 18-22 years were distributed into four groups. Group 1 was designated as educational awareness program (n= 30), Group 2 as a fitness awareness program, (n= 30), Group 3 as educational plus fitness awareness program (n= 30), and Group 4 as the control group (n= 30). The three investigational groups undertook their corresponding training program for a period of 8 weeks three times per week and 60 minutes per session. Pre- and post-test were conducted for height, BMI, waist rip ratio, waist circumference, hip circumferences, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides. The mean, SD, t-test, and ANCOVA were the statistical tools used for the analysis of data and the significance level was 0.05. The results showed a significant improvement in the experimental groups in BMI (G1 to G3, P < 0.05) and in the waist to hip ratio (G2 & G3, P < 0.05). G1 did not show any accomplishment in the waist to hip ratio (P>0.05). All three experimental groups (G1 to G3) exhibited surges in coronary heart disease risk factors (P > 0.05). G4 did not display any change in all the study variables (P< 0.05). It was concluded that to reduce the risk factor of heart diseases both the education cum activity intervention programs will be highly beneficial.

Keywords: Education, fitness, coronary heart diseases, globosity.


INTRODUCTION

 

World Health Organization (WHO) the world body to safeguard the health of people around the world has termed universal rampant overweight and obesity with an innovative term as Globosity”. The addition in body mass is owing to abundant features like a harmful way of life, erroneous nutrition, shortage of workout, modification in the lifestyle, and hereditary influences [1, 2]. It has been proposed that the accrual of fat in the frame commences in infancy and fluctuates based on various factors like sex, age, and culture. The disorders associated with elevating adipose tissue are obesity, diabetes of type 2, bone loss, melancholy, and breast and colon cancer. There are various methods to quantify the magnitude of body fat, however; the utmost term utilized is the BMI (Body Mass Index) [3]. The BMI denotes whether an individual is obese when his/her body weight in kg is divided by his/her height in meters squared and the answer is +30 Kg/m2  Investigators indicated that intake of nourishment and exercise play a significant part in the cure and avoidance of obesity as an expedient parameter to envisage CVD threat beyond adiposity and surging proof displayed the significance of cardiorespiratory aptness, and skeletal muscle quantity and power. Consistent and regular exercise and suitable nutrition can assist in decreasing body fat as well as safeguard against protracted diseases linked with obesity. The WHO is employing its program of Health 2020 in almost every country in the world to promote an effective methodology to determine health diseases.

Obesity is rapidly metamorphosing as an epidemic in the present scenario [4-6]. Obesity universally is a complex ailment that advances from the interface between genotype and the environs [7]. It is a foremost civic health issue ensuing a severe social, physical, and psychological destruction [8]. The occurrence of obesity and overweight among teenagers is mounting to frightening stages in emerging countries [9, 10]. Fatality increases especially with amassed body mass. Individuals who are considered obese stand the dangers of getting afflicted with coronary heart disease four times more than overweight persons whose risk is doubled [11, 12]. It is a general belief that obesity is a therapeutic ailment resulting from surplus body fat that has been stored to the degree of causing an adverse effect on health, with a decreased life expectancy and/or augmented health complications. BMI is intently associated with the ratio of body fat and total body fat. This apart, it can also be known through assessing the fat distribution by means of the waist-hip ratio and total cardiovascular risk factors [13, 14]. In teenagers and youths, the meaning of obesity is not described analogically to a historical common group and that obesity is a BMI superior to the ninety-fifth percentile. The resource statistics that these percentiles are established are dated back to 1994 and hence have not been altered by the latest escalations in mass [15]. This clearly indicates that an individual should have to indulge in an exercise regime at a lesser zone of exertion and continue it for an extensive period. Unfortunately, a lot of people do not realize the importance of exercise and blame the work environment and lack of spare time. Such individuals can find a way to decrease the fat content quickly by an indirect method of allowing an increase in metabolic activity through anaerobic exercise [16]. The amalgamation of sedentariness, extreme energy ingestion, and a likely inherited tendency produce a substantial part in the development of obesity [17].

Cardiovascular disease termed as (CVD) is the most devastating destroyer and the chief source of community health complications in the biosphere, leading to chronic diseases and death in diverse societies [18]. CVD advances by tapering of the arteries connected to the heart damaging the cardiac muscles due to lack of supply of oxygen, nourishment, and blood flow ultimately resulting in a heart attack. The heart ailment has dualistic features when matched with other body part illnesses. Primarily, it is veiled but progresses to a dynamic phase before the patient observes any signs. Furthermore, the extent of indications identified to coronary ailment is partial and it is akin to much-altered pathology by a concluding joint symptomatic route [19]. Lipid record plays an indispensable part in lipid installation in the artery wall and CVD expansion, by amassing the Low-Density Lipoprotein inside strata of the artery wall, with the exception of High-Density Lipoprotein. HDL with its valuable impact reduces lipid oxidation after settling in blood vessels, resulting in the delaying of CVD progression. The literature has pointed out that a reduction of 1-mg/dL of HDL in the plasma results in avoiding the risk of CVD by two to three percent [20]. It is well known that HDL is a "worthy cholesterol" due to its constructive part in blood vessels by countless mechanisms to thwart LDL from accumulating in blood arteries, whereas LDL is termed as "evil cholesterol" owing to its amassing in the arteries.  The health complications linked with stoutness are harsh and frequently result in long-standing adverse health concerns as children grow into mature adults. It is reported that 60% of obese teenagers have a minimum of one supplementary CVD peril issue, and twenty-five percent have twofold or more. Health care is the priority of any nation to keep its citizens healthy. All developed countries in the globe record a high rate of CVD and an exhorbent amount of money is spent on its maintenance and treatment as hospitalization charges have augmented three folds [21]. It is acknowledged that CVD has its origin in infancy regardless of the circumstance and that clinical signs of the ailment do not exhibit until late in lifespan [22-24]. Numerous research studies have observed the dangers of CVD, which are primarily associated with the particular lipids [25-27]. All these researchers indicated an association with the exercise and fatty acid profiles, causing a reduction in the threat for cardiovascular diseases particularly with aerobic exercise.

Most of the researchers have identified supplementary epidemiological procedures of obesity in the teenagers and youth that comprises of waist perimeter, thickness of the skinfold, and impedance using the bioelectrical scrutiny. These processes are based on an indirect method to detect the body fat that does not use body mass. However, waist circumference is also an indirect method but it has the benefit over the use of BMI since it offers a clear hint of the distribution of body fat [28].

Aerobic exercise significantly improves the utilization of free fatty acids. However, anaerobic exercise consequently mobilizes these free fatty acids substantially causing a reduction of body fat. The literature clearly points out that exercises can constructively modify the values of blood lipid that ultimately is associated with the capacity and force of physical activity [29]. Exercise causes a decrease in total cholesterol and LDL and on the other hand an augmentation of HDL. All the above vagaries collectively work in curtailing the risk of heart attack and brain strokes [30].

Triglyceride is the key component of plant oil and animal fats. They are made from a solitary particle of glycerol, joined with three fatty acids in conjugation with one of the OH groups, and generate maximum fats assimilated by individuals [31]. There were many misconceptions with regard to the risk factors associated with coronary heart diseases. It was earlier thought that LDL was the sole contributor to heart problems. But, the research on triglycerides has clearly indicated with generic testimony that it is an additional source for CHD. Advance investigations revealed that patients with customary heart problems are at threat for relapse of cardiac events with judicious to huge rises in triglyceride intensities. Hence, a reduction in the levels of triglycerides is essential to reduce the risk factors for CHD that can be attained through exercise interventions.

 

METHOD

A total of 120 students whose age was 18-22 years were chosen as participants and distributed into four groups. Group 1 was designated as educational awareness program (n= 30), Group 2 as fitness awareness program, (n= 30), Group 3 as educational plus fitness awareness program (n= 30), and Group 4 as control group (n= 30).  The three investigational groups undertook their corresponding training program for a period of 8 weeks three times per week and 60 minutes per session. The educational awareness program consisted of lifestyle lessons can increase the knowledge with regard to physical activity and nutrition, and improve awareness about the coronary heart. The fitness awareness program group took part in an aerobic activity like walking/jogging starting with 40% of their maximum load and increased by 5% every week, the fitness plus educational awareness program group did the same routine of aerobic training as Group 2 in the morning apart from attending the educational session in the evening of the same day. The control group restrained to take part in any program and they did their normal routine workouts. Pre and post-test were conducted for all the study variables like height, BMI, waist rip ratio, waist circumference, hip circumferences, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides. BMI was recorded using the TANITA machine DC 430 MAP, Japan. Blood samples were taken from the subjects in the morning and tested in the pathological laboratory for total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides before and after the commencement of the training program. The mean, SD, t-test, and ANCOVA were the statistical tools used for the analysis of data and the significance level was 0.05.

 

RESULTS   

 

 

Table 1: denoting the mean, standard deviation, and t-value of 4 groups for obesity (BMI & waist to hip ratio)

Component

Group

Pre-test

M±SD

Post-test

M±SD

Adjusted

mean

t-value

 

BMI

Education

26.58±1.08

26.19±1.09

26.43

12.82*

Fitness

29.45±0.83

25.76±0.81

26.13

23.12*

Edu + fitness

26.88±1.11

25.94±1.06

25.91

19.78*

control

27.38±1.39

27.40±1.38

26.87

0.40

 

Waist/Hip

ratio

Education

0.86±0.01

0.86±0.01

0.87

1.35

Fitness

0.88±0.02

0.86±0.02

0.86

8.56*

Edu + fitness

0.88±0.01

0.84±0.02

0.85

10.98*

control

0.88±0.02

0.88±0.02

0.88

2.80

*Significant at 0.05

 

 

Table 1 designates the values of obesity variables encompassing the BMI and waist to hip ratio for all four groups in the pre- and post-test. The mean ± standard deviation and t-test values of BMI pre- to post-test were 26.58±1.08, 26.19±1.09, 12.82 for G1; 29.45±0.83, 25.76±0.81, 23.12 for G2; 26.88±1.11, 25.94±1.06,19.78 for G3; and 27.38±1.39, 27.40±1.38, 0.40 for G 4; respectively. The waist to hip ratio readings of M±SD and t-value from pre- to post-test was 0.86±0.01, 0.86±0.01, 1.35 for G1; 0.88±0.02, 0.86±0.02, 8.56 for G 2; 0.88±0.01, 0.84±0.02, 10.98 for G3; and 0.88±0.02, 0.88±0.02, 2.80 for G4;  respectively. The t-values of BMI with respect to G1, G2, G3 were significant (P < 0.05) and also waist to hip ratio for G2, G3 were significant (P < 0.05). The control did not yield any significant results in the above two variables (P >0.05) whereas G1 did not show any significant result in the waist to hip ratio (P > 0.05).

 

 

Table 2: denoting  mean, standard deviation, and t-values of 4 groups for coronary heart disease factors

Component

Group

Pre-test

M±SD

Post-test

M±SD

Adjusted

mean

t-value

Total cholesterol

Education

181.15±5.86

176.98 ±5.26

174.93

6.28*

Fitness

176.19±10.22

169.89 ±9.99

172.30

20.23*

Edu + fitness

179.45±7.91

170. ±9.99

169.93

21.66*

control

178.65±9.36

178.85±8.92

179.03

0.59

HDL

Education

35.25 ±1.19

36.55 ±1.13

36.95

6.96*

Fitness

36.18±1.71

38.68 ±1.72

38.30

17.62*

Edu + fitness

35.51±1.40

39.57 ±1.40

39.98

23.0*

control

35.96±1.43

35.9±1.56

35.80

0.21

LDL

Education

125.55±5.64

120.79 ±4.71

118.74

7.13*

Fitness

120.95 ±10.19

113.39 ±9.67

115.42

21.52*

Edu + fitness

124.35 ±7.36

112.76 ±6.54

111.77

32.73*

control

122.15±9.78

122.33±9.20

123.31

0.61

Triglycerides

Education

101.35 ±9.61

98.19±9.51

96.15

6.15*

Fitness

94.98 ±11.84

89.66 ±12.05

93.59

9.61*

Edu + fitness

97.91 ±12.85

89.35 ±11.75

90.53

24.61*

control

102.45±7.60

102.72±7.00

99.65

1.07

*Significant at 0.05

 

 

Table 2 describes the measurements with regard to the coronary heart diseases that covers the total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides. The mean, SD and t-values for the pre and post-tests for total cholesterol for G1 was 181.15±5.86, 176.98 ±5.26 & 6.28; for G2, 176.19±10.22, 169.89 ±9.99 & 20.23; for G3, 179.45±7.91, 170. ±9.99 & 21.66; and G4, 178.65±9.36, 178.85±8.92 & 0.59, respectively. The mean, SD and t-values for the pre and post-tests for HDL for G1 was 35.25 ±1.19, 36.55 ±1.13 & 6.96; for G2, 36.18±1.71, 38.68 ±1.72 & 17.62; for G3, 35.51±1.40, 39.57 ±1.40 & 23.0, and G4, 35.96±1.43, 35.9±1.56 & 0.21, respectively. The mean, SD and t-values of LDL for the pre- and post-tests for G1 was 125.55±5.64, 120.79 ±4.71, & 47.13; for G2, 120.95 ±10.19, 113.39 ±9.67,               & 21.52; for G3, 124.35±7.36, 112.76±6.54, & 32.73 and for G4, 122.15±9.78, 122.33±9.20, & 0.61, respectively. The mean, SD and t-values of triglycerides for the pre and post-tests for G1 was 101.35 ±9.61, 98.19±9.51 & 6.15; for G 2, 94.98 ±11.84, 89.66 ±12.05 & 9.61; for G3, 97.91 ±12.85, 89.35 ±11.75 & 24.61, and for G4, 102.45±7.60, 102.72±7.00 & 1.07, respectively. The t-test values of the study components for G1, G2, and G3 showed noteworthy changes (P< 0.05) while the G4 did not show any notable change in any variables (P > 0.05).

 

 

Table 3 - Pairwise Scheffe’s post hoc comparisons for obesity variables

Component

Edu.

Versus

Fitness

Edu.

Versus

Edu. Plus

Fitness

Edu.

Versus

Control

Fitness

Versus

Edu. Plus

Fitness

Fitness

Versus

Control

Edu. Plus

Fitness Versus

Control

C.I.

Value

BMI

0.30*

0.52*

0.43

0.21*

0.74*

0.96*

0.15

Waist-Hip ratio

0.01

0.02*

0.01

0.01

0.03*

0.03*

0.01

CI value- confidence Interval of Scheffe’s post hoc test

* Significant at 0.05

  

 

The analysis of data with ANCOVA for four groups in the dependent variables pointed out noteworthy differences between these groups. To find out which group had the differences the pairwise post hoc was utilized, which is presented in Table 3 for the obesity variables and Table 4 for the coronary heart diseases.

In Table 3 for the BMI,  G3 with an adjusted mean of 25.91 considerably outclassed  G1 and G2 (26.43; 26.13, respectively) with an adjusted mean difference of 0.30 and 0.21 (CI = 0.15), respectively. Nevertheless, there were noteworthy variations among G1 and G2 with an adjusted mean of 0.30 (CI = 15). Besides, all the three groups G1, G2, & G3 (adjusted means – 0.43, 0.74, 0.96) meaningfully outplaced the G4 (adjusted mean 26.87; CI =0.15). With regard to the waist-hip ratio G3 (Adj. mean = 0.85) considerably exceeded G1 & G2 (Adj. means; 0.87, 0.86) with adjusted mean differences of 0.02 & 0.01 (CI= 0.01), respectively. However, there were no significant differences between G1 & G2 with an adjusted mean difference of 0.01 & 0.01 (CI = 0.01). This apart, G1 & G3 exceedingly outstripped G4 (Adj. mean- 0.88) with an adjusted mean difference of 0.02 and 0.03,  respectively (CI =0.01).   

        

 

                  

Table 4 - Pairwise Scheffe’s post hoc comparisons for coronary heart diseases variables

Component

Edu.

Versus

Fitness

Edu.

Versus

Edu. Plus

Fitness

Edu.

Versus

Control

Fitness

Versus

Edu. Plus

Fitness

Fitness

Versus

Control

Edu. Plus

Fitness Versus

Control

C.I.

Value

Total

Cholesterol

2.63*

5.00*

4.10*

2.37*

6.73*

9.10*

1.72

HDL

1.36*

4.04*

1.14*

2.68*

2.50*

5.18*

0.76

LDL

3.32*

6.97*

4.55*

3.65*

7.87*

11.52*

1.62

Triglycerides

2.56*

5.61*

3.50*

3.05*

6.06*

9.11*

1.68

CI value- confidence Interval of Scheffe’s post hoc test

* Significant at 0.05

 

 

In Table 4, for the component of total cholesterol, G3 (Adj. mean- 169.93) meaningfully surpassed G1 & G2 (Adj. mean 174.93 & 172.30) with adjusted mean differences of 2.63 and 2.37 (CI = 1.72). Notable differences were observed between the G1 and G2 with an adjusted mean difference of 2.63 (CI=1.72). In addition, G1, G2, & G3 meaningfully outperformed G4 (Adj. mean - 179.05) with adjusted mean differences of 4.10, 6.73, and 9.10 (CI=1.72). In the second variable of HDL in the coronary heart diseases, G3 (Adj. mean =41.00) had enhanced performance than G1 and G2 (Adj. mean = 36.96 & 38.32) with adjusted mean differences of 1.36 and 2.68 (CI=0.76), respectively. G1 and G2 had significant differences with an adjusted mean difference of 1.36 (CI = 0.76). G1, G2, and G3 showed remarkable changes when compared to G4 (Adj. mean = 35.82) with adjusted mean differences of 1.14, 2.50, and 5.18 (CI=0.76). G3 had given very encouraging performance with regard to the LDL (Adj. mean- 111.79) with G1 and G2 (Adj. mean- 118.76 & 115.44) with adjusted mean differences of 3.32 & 3.65 (CI = 1.62). There were also differences between G1 and G2 with an adjusted mean difference of 3.32 (CI = 1.62). G1, G2, and G3 had meaningful alterations with G4 (Adj. mean- 123.31) with an adjusted mean difference of 4.55, 7.87, and 11.52 (CI = 1.62). In the last of the coronary heart diseases of triglycerides G3 (Adj. mean -90.55) did well when equated with G1 and G2 (Adj. means of 96.16 & 93.60) with an adjusted mean difference of 2.56 and 3.05 (CI = 1.68), respectively. G1 and G2 also showed important changes with an adjusted mean difference of 2.56 (CI = 1.68). further, G1, G2, and G3 significantly did exceptionally good than G4 (Adj. mean – 99.66) with an adjusted mean difference of 3.50, 6.06, and 9.11 (CI = 1.68).

 

DISCUSSION

The main objective of the investigation was to know the impact of increasing awareness through educational & Fitness Programs on the Coronary Heart Diseases.

Obesity, which is a global health problem, is linked with many risk factors of well-being especially with stroke, high blood pressure, myocardial contravention, diabetes mellitus, wired lipedema, and various co-morbidities of medical nature resulting in an augmented danger of death [32, 33]. One of the main health hazards of obese persons is that they usually exhibit symptoms of vascular diseases due to deterioration of endothelium. The situation gets associated with atherosclerosis and various other defects in the circulatory system [34-36]. The literature on obese individuals has opened up many avenues to counteract the global menace. Numerous procedures and methods have been utilized to solve this problem. Some of these measures to get rid of obesity passively is medicament and surgeries of different nature [37]. But the most commonly used method is a loss of body mass through intervention programs like restriction in nutrition, exercise, and exercise plus diet restrictions [38].

It is observed the most inert rampant program of weight loss is diet [39], but many studies confirmed that diet alone will be an unproductive approach for controlling body mass over an extended period of time [40, 41]. Even though there will be some beneficial effects at the beginning, later within four to six months, the individual will regain weight [42, 43]. The explanations cited for the ineptness of nutritional strategy is from the functional viewpoint like the reduction of lean body tissue resulting in decrease of BMR (basal metabolic rate) [44]. This apart, the anticipated presence of a hereditarily encoded set-point for body weight that the body drift down back to after periods of weight management [41]. However, diet involvements are largely fruitful in a small period of time [45-47].

Numerous research studies have indicated that exercise alone can be a significant approach for long-term weight loss as it is competent of decreasing a person’s body mass, preserving and even elevating RMR (resting metabolic rate), safeguarding and boosting lean muscle quantity [48-51]. Almost all the studies have confirmed that exercise is the best medicine not only for weight reduction through enhanced energy expenditure but also for multiple health gains that can directly ease the dangers of existing co-morbidities [46, 49, 52].       

The literature on obesity has observed that apart from the nutritional and exercise alone program for reducing the body fat, the most suitable and commendable intervention for the loss of lean body mass is the combination of diet plus exercise [53-55]. In one such investigation caloric restriction in combination with exercise had resulted in a typical discrete loss to a tune of 13.1 ± 0.7kg, in body mass while participants undergoing only exercise reduced on average 5.6 ± 0.6kg each [56]. It is reported that even if such approaches do not decline the body weight they have revealed to affect a substantial cutbacks in overall fat, visceral fat, and skeletal muscle fat accrual in obese persons [57, 58].

Kristen et al (2019) in their review of health guidance and education administered to obese persons by principal care surgeons and nurses had contradictory outcomes [59]. Clune et al. (2010) in their study observed that 70% of the overweight subjects could follow the weight loss criteria of receiving advice by health care specialists [60]. They also reported that the study had the drawback of using self-reported data that may have steered on memory bias. ter Bogt et al. (2011) established that obese persons getting weight addition avoidance approaches rendered by nurses failed to acquire improved outcomes [61]. Likewise, Noordman et al. (2012) observed that a single principal upkeep certified person does not appear to be superior to the other [62]. At the end of the day, it is found that even though the education given to the obese person has an effect but it may not be as beneficial as with the combination of exercise. Hence, all the above results are in line with the outcome of this study.

Taking a cue from the literature and from the observation of this investigation, it is clear that the three experimental groups had a significant effect on the reduction of body fat and also lipid profile. However, the group that had the intervention program of education plus the fitness regime had noteworthy progress in BMI, waist to hip ratio, total cholesterol, HDL, and reduction in the LDL and the triglycerides. All the stated studies have supported the outcomes of our study.

CONCLUSION

The outcome of this study clearly states that a methodically and scientifically planned education plus fitness exercise regime has to be acknowledged and executed suitably in the upkeep of the health of all the obese individuals globally.

 

REFERENCES

  1. AlTahan HA, Al-Juhani W. Effect of Morbid Obesity on Postoperative Outcomes Following Total Knee Arthroplasty. Int. J. Pharm. Res. Allied Sci. 2018 Jan 1;7(3):101-7.
  2. Mahassni SH. Overweight and Obesity and the Immune System, Lipids and C-reactive Protein in Young and Middle-aged Saudi Female University Workers. J. Biochem. Technol. 2020;11(1):49-56.
  3. Haghighi-Morad M, Shakoori A, Salevatipour B. Evaluation of Abdominal Obesity Using Ultrasound and Its Correlation with Intima Media Thickness in Carotid Arteries. Int. J. Pharm. Phytopharm. Res. 2019 Oct;9(5):43-7.
  4. Chakravarthy, M., Booth, F. Eating, Exercise and “thirfty” genotypes: connecting the dots towards an evolutionary understanding of modern chronic diseases. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2004; 96(1): 3-10.
  5. Davey, R. The obesity epidemic: too much food for thought? British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2004; 38(3): 360-363.
  6. World Health Organization. Obesity: Prevention and Managing the Global Epidemic. Geneva. World Health Organization. 2000.
  7. Ashtiani AR, Vahidian-Rezazadeh M, Jafari M, Galdavi R, Mohammad M. Study of Changes in The Plasma Levels of Chemerin of Women with Overweight and Obese During a Period of Endurance Training On a Cycle-Ergometer Using Hydroalcoholic Extract of Urtica. Pharmacophores. 2018;9(2):72-9.
  8. Mota, G.R., Zanesco A. Leptin, ghrlin, and physical exercise. Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia. 2007; 51(1): 25-33.
  9. Caius, N., Benefice, E.  Food habits, physical activity and overweight among adolscents. Revue d epidemiologia et de Sante publique. 2002; 50(6): 531-542.
  10. Kosti, R., Panagiotakos, D. The epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents in the world. Central European Journal Public Health. 2006; 14(4):151-159.
  11. Willett, W., Manson, J., Stampfer, M., Colditz, G., Rosner, B., Speizer, F., Hennekens, C. Weight, weight change, and coronary heart disease in women: risk within the normal. weight range. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1995; 273(6):  461-465.
  12. Wilding, J. Science, medicine, and the future: obesity treatment. British Medical Journal. 1997; 315 (7114): 997-1000.
  13. de Koning L, Merchant AT, Pogue J, Anand SS. Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular events: meta-regression analysis of prospective studies. Eur Heart J, 2007; 28(7):850–6.
  14. Visscher TL, Seidell JC, Molarius A, van der Kuip D, Hofman A, Witteman JC.  A comparison of body mass index, waist-hip ratio and waist circumference as predictors of all-cause mortality among the elderly: the Rotterdam study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001; 25(11):1730–5.
  15. Gray, D.S., Fujioka, K. Use of relative weight and Body Mass Index for the determination of adiposity. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1991;44 (6): 545–50.
  16. Imaz, I., Martínez-Cervell, C., García-Alvarez, E.E., Sendra-Gutiérrez, J.M., González- Enríquez, J. Safety and effectiveness of the intragastric balloon for obesity. A meta-analysis. Obesity Surgery.  2008; 18 (7): 841–6.
  17. NHS Digital Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet - England, 2018. NHS Digital, 2018.
  18. Hadaegh, F., Harati, H., Ghanbarian, A., Azizi, F. Prevalence of coronary heart disease among Tehran adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2009; 15 (1): 120-124.
  19. Fakhrzadeh H, Bandarian F, Adibi H, Samavat T, Malekafzali H, Hodjatzadeh E., Larijani B. Coronary heart disease and associated risk factors in Qazvin: a population-based study. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2008 ; 14 (1): 29.
  20. Chapman, M.J., Assmann, G., Fruchart, J.C., Shepherd, J. and Sirtori, C. Raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with reduction of cardiovascular risk: the role of nicotinic acid. a position paper developed by the European Consensus Panel on HDL-C. Current Medical Research and Opinion Journal. 2004; 20(8): 1253-1268.
  21. Almoslim, H., Ibrahim, S., Kanniyan, AS. Plasma lipid, lipoprotein levels and blood glucose: The effects of combined aerobic-resistance training on morbid obese men. Scholars Research Library, Annals of Biological Research. 2014; 5 (3): 46-51.
  22. Ming, D., Kathyrn, M R. A Review of Lipidomics of Cardiovascular Disease Highlights the Importance of Isolating Lipoproteins, Metabolites. 2020; 10(4): 163.
  23. Kishore, Y., Ibrahim, S, A Study on the Eleven Week Conditioning and Four Week Deconditioning Program on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Response of Female Students “in the International Journal of Health, Physical Education and Computer Science in Sports. 2011; 2 (1): 59-61.
  24. Fernandez C, Sandin M, Sampaio JL, Almgren P, Narkiewicz K, Hoffmann M, Hedner T, Wahlstrand B, Simons K, Shevchenko A, James P. Plasma lipid composition and risk of developing cardiovascular disease. PloS one. 2013 Aug 15;8(8):e71846.
  25. Abdelhamid, A. S., Brown, T. J., Brainard, J. S., Biswas, P., Thorpe, G. C., Moore, H. J., Deane, K. H., AlAbdulghafoor, F. K., Summerbell, C. D., Worthington, H. V., Song, F., Hooper, L. Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2018; 7(7): D003177.
  26. Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, Buroker AB, Goldberger ZD, Hahn EJ, Himmelfarb CD, Khera A, Lloyd-Jones D, McEvoy JW, Michos ED. 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2019 Sep 2;74(10):1376-414.
  27. Laaksonen, D.E., Atalay, M., Niskanen, L.K., Mustonen, J.S., Chandan K., Lakka, T.A. Aerobic exercise and the lipid profile in type I diabetic men: a randomized controlled trial. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1999; 32(9): 1541-1548.
  28. Pratt, J.S., Lenders, C.M., Dionne, E.A., Hoppin, A.G., Hsu, G.L., Inge, T.H., Lawlor, D.F., Marino, M.F., Meyers, A.F., Rosenblum, J.L., Sanchez, V.M. Best practice updates for pediatric/adolescent weight loss surgery. Obesity Silver Spring.  2009; 17(5): 901-910.
  29. Pollock, M.L., Wilmore, J.H. Exercise in Health and Disease: Evaluation and Prescription for Presentation and Rehabilitation. Philadelphia: W.B.Saunders Co. 1990: 222.
  30. Holmes MV, Millwood IY, Kartsonaki C, Hill MR, Bennett DA, Boxall R, Guo Y, Xu X, Bian Z, Hu R, Walters RG. Lipids, lipoproteins, and metabolites and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. J. Am.Coll. Cardiol. 2018; 71(6): 620–632.
  31. Yating Wang, Li Shen, Danyan Xu. Aerobic exercise reduces triglycerides by targeting apolipoprotein C3 in patients with coronary heart disease. Clinical Cardiology. 2019; 42 (1): 56-61.
  32. Cheng JM, Suoniemi M, Kardys I, Vihervaara T, de Boer SP, Akkerhuis KM, Sysi-Aho M, Ekroos K, Garcia-Garcia HM, Oemrawsingh RM, Regar E. Plasma concentrations of molecular lipid species in relation to coronary plaque characteristics and cardiovascular outcome: Results of the ATHEROREMO-IVUS study. Atherosclerosis. 2015 Dec 1;243(2):560-6.
  33. Crespo, C., Smith, E. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States. In R. Andersen (Ed), Obesity: Etiology, Assessment, Treatment and Prevention. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. 2003; 117-120.
  34. Grundy, S., Blackburn, G., Higgins, M., Lauer, R., Perri, M., Ryan, D.  Physical activity in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1999; 31(11): S502-S508.
  35. Razquin C, Liang L, Toledo E, Clish CB, Ruiz-Canela M, Zheng Y, Wang DD, Corella D, Castaner O, Ros E, Aros F. Plasma lipidome patterns associated with cardiovascular risk in the PREDIMED trial: A case-cohort study. Int. J. Cardiol. 2018; 253: 126–132.
  36. Goff Jr DC, Lloyd-Jones DM, Bennett G, Coady S, D'Agostino RB, Gibbons R, Greenland P, Lackland DT, Levy D, O’Donnell CJ, Robinson JG. American Heart Association Task Force on Practice G. 2013 acc/aha guideline on the assessment of cardiovascular risk: A report of the american college of cardiology/american heart association task force on practice guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129(Suppl 2):S49-73.
  37. Ruban, A., Stoenchev, K., Ashrafian, H., Teare, J. Current treatments for obesity. Clinical medicine. London, England. 2019; 19(3): 205–212.
  38. Public Health England Health matters: obesity and the food environment. London: PHE. 2017.
  39. World Health Organization. Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2004; 57:17.
  40. Tobias DK, Chen M, Manson JE, Ludwig DS, Willett W, Hu FB. Effect of low-fat diet interventions versus other diet interventions on long-term weight change in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The lancet Diabetes & endocrinology. 2015 Dec 1;3(12):968-79.
  41. McArdle, W., Katch, F., Katch. Exercise Physiology: Energy,Nutrition and Human Performance. (5th ed). Philadephia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2001:29.
  42. Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G. Long-term effects of low-fat diets either low or high in protein on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr J. 2013; 12(1):48.
  43. Elks, M. Optimising outcomes in the treatment of obesity: current evidence for the effectiveness of interventions and future prospects. In G.Mallarkey (Ed), Managing Obesity. Auckland, New Zealand: Adis International Limited. 1999: 1-9.
  44. Mahan, K., Escott-Stump, S. Krause’s Food.  Nutrition and Diet Therapy (10th ed). Philadephia: WB Saunders. 2000: 237.
  45. Merra G, Gratteri S, De Lorenzo A, Barrucco S, Perrone MA, Avolio E, Bernardini S, Marchetti M, Di Renzo L. Effects of very-low-calorie diet on body composition, metabolic state, and genes expression: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(2):329–
  46. Hansen, K., Shirver, T., Schoeller, D. The effects of exercise on the storage and oxidation of dietary fat. Sports Medicine. 2005; 35(5): 363-373.
  47. Astrup, A. Dietary approaches to reducing body weight. Balliere’s Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1999;13(1) : 109-120.
  48. Gilliat-Wimberly, M., Manore, M., Woolf, K.,Swan, P., Carroll, S. Effects of habitual physical physical activity on the resting metabolic rates and body composition of women aged 35 to50 years. Journal of the American Dietic Association. 2001; 101(10): 1181-1188.
  49. Linton MF, Yancey PG, Davies SS, Jerome WG, Linton EF, Song WL, Doran AC, Vickers KC. The Role of Lipids and Lipoproteins in Atherosclerosis. Endotext. 2019
  50. McKay, H., Macdonald, H., Reed, K., Khan, K. Exercise interventions for health: time to focus on dimensions, delivery, and dollars. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2003; 37(2): 98-99.
  51. Miller, W. Effective diet and exercise treatments for overweight and recommendations for intervention. Sports Medicine. 2001; 31(10): 717-724.
  52. Volek, J., Vanheest, J., Forsythe, C. Diet and exercise for weight loss: a review of current issues. Sports Medicine. 2005; 35(1): 1-9.
  53. Hernández-Reyes, A., Cámara-Martos, F., Molina-Luque, R., Romero-Saldaña, M., Molina-Recio, G., Moreno-Rojas, R. Changes in body composition with a hypocaloric diet combined with sedentary, moderate and high-intense physical activity: a randomized controlled trial. BMC women's health. 2019. 19(1): 167.
  54. Nicklas BJ, Wang X, You T, Lyles MF, Demons J, Easter L, Berry MJ, Lenchik L, Carr JJ. Effect of exercise intensity on abdominal fat loss during calorie restriction in overweight and obese postmenopausal women: a randomized, controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89(4):1043–52.
  55. Merlotti C, Ceriani V, Morabito A, Pontiroli AE. Subcutaneous fat loss is greater than visceral fat loss with diet and exercise, weight-loss promoting drugs and bariatric surgery: a critical review and meta-analysis. Int J Obes. 2017; 41(5):672–82.
  56. Keim, N., Barbieri, T., Van Loan, M., Andersen, B. Energy expenditure and physical performance in overweight women: response to training with and without caloric restriction. Metabolism. 1990; 39(6): 651-658.
  57. Lee, S., Kuk, J., Davidson, L., Hudson, R., Kilpatric, K., Graham, T., Ross, R. Exercise without weight loss in an effective strategy for obesity reduction in obese individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2005; 99(3): 1220-1225.
  58. Watts, K., Beye, P., Siafarikas, A., Davis, E., Jones, T., O’Driscoll, G., Green, D. Exercise training normalizes vascular dysfunction and improves central adiposity in obese adolescents. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2004;  43(10): 1823-1827.
  59. Kristina W., Carol G., Kathy H. Health advice and education given to overweight patients by primary care doctors and nurses: A scoping literature review, Preventive Medicine Reports. 2019:14 :100812.
  60. Clune, J.G. Fischer, J.S. Lee, S. Reddy, M.A. Johnson, D.B. Hausman,Prevalence and predictors of recommendations to lose weight in overweight and obese older adults in Georgia senior centers, Prev. Med. 20105; 1 (1) : 27-30
  61. Ter Bogt, N. C., Bemelmans, W. J., Beltman, F. W., Broer, J., Smit, A. J., van der Meer, K. Preventing weight gain by lifestyle intervention in a general practice setting: Three-year results of a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2011; 171(4): 306–313.
  62. Noordman, J., T. van der Weijden, S. van Dulmen. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: a systematic review of the literature Patient Educ. Couns. 2012; 89 (2): 227-244.

 


Entomology and Applied Science Letters is an international peer reviewed publication which publishes scientific research & review articles related to insects that contain information of interest to a wider audience, e.g. papers bearing on the theoretical, genetic, agricultural, medical and biodiversity issues. Emphasis is also placed on the selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance. Papers on non-insect groups are no longer accepted. In addition to full-length research articles and reviews, the journal publishes interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, and Letters to the Editor. The journal publishes reports on all phases of medical entomology and medical acarology, including the systematics and biology of insects, acarines, and other arthropods of public health and veterinary significance.
Issue 1 Volume 8 - 2021
Call for Papers
Entomology and Applied Science Letters supports the submission of entomological papers that contain information of interest to a wider reader groups e. g. papers bearing on taxonomy, phylogeny, biodiversity, ecology, systematic, agriculture, morphology. The selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance is also important. Distinguished entomologists drawn from different parts of the world serve as honorary members of the Editorial Board. The journal encompasses all the varied aspects of entomological research. This has become the need felt in scientific research due to the emphasis on intra-, inter-, and multi-disciplinary approach.