Yellow sweet-clover, Melilotus indicus (L.), is known for its medicinal and ethnomedicinal uses. A very few studies have focused on the efficacy of it on pest control. Herein, the biological effects of sublethal concentrations of M. indicus extract in comparison with three insect growth regulators (IGRs), novaluron, lufenuron, and diflubenzuron against the life cycle of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were evaluated under laboratory conditions. All tested compounds, especially M. indicus, prolonged the duration of the larval and pupal stages comparing to that of the untreated control. The emerged adult percentage was highly reduced by 91.35%, 78.96%, 77.33%, and 62.46% after larval feeding with the higher concentration of M. indicus extract, diflubenzuron, novaluron, and lufenuron; respectively. M. indicus extract and diflubenzuron caused high increment in malformation in larvae, pupa, and adults. The efforts should be implemented to get better understanding about the molecular basis of its possible unknown mode of action on growth hormones to be continued in the future.
Ahmed, MAI. 2014. Evaluation of novel neonicotinoid pesticides against Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory conditions. Adv. Environ. Biol. 8: 1002-1007.
Ahmed MAI, Temerak SAS, Abdel-Galil FA, Manna SHM. 2016. Susceptibility of field and laboratory strains of cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to spinosad pesticide under laboratory conditions. Plant Protec. Sci. 52: 128-133.
Atia MA, Osman G H, Elmenofy WH. 2016. Genome-wide in Silico Analysis, Characterization and Identification of Microsatellites in Spodoptera littoralis Multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV). Scientific Reports. 6: 33741. 10.1038/srep33741.
Ashry NA, Ghonaim MM, Mohamed HI, Mogazy AM. 2018. Physiological and molecular genetic studies on two elicitors for improving the tolerance of six Egyptian soybean cultivars to cotton leafworm. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 130: 224-234.
Ayoub HA, Khairy M, Elsaid S, Rashwan FA, Abdel-Hafez HF. 2018. Pesticidal Activity of Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Generation of Alternative Pesticide Formulations. J. Agric. Food Chem. 66: 5491-5498.
Ahmed MAI, Abdel-Galil FA, Temerak SAH, Manna SHM. 2015. Bio-residual activity of selected biopesticides in comparison with the conventional insecticide dursban against cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Am.-Eursion. J. Sustain. Agric. 9: 9-14.
Hagenbucher S, Eisenring M, Meissle M, Romeis J. 2017. Interaction of transgenic and natural insect resistance mechanisms against Spodoptera littoralis in cotton. Pest Manage. Sci. 73: 1670-1678.
Farag M, Ahmed MH, Yousef H, El-Badawey SS, Abd El-Ghany MA, Abdel-Rahman AA . 2012. Repellent and insecticide activity of Pelargonium x hortorum against Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Journal of Natural Science C ( In German). 67: 398-404.
Abdien SA, Ahmed MAI, AbduAllah GAM, El-Din HAE. 2016. Potential evaluation of certain conventional pesticides on fourth instar larvae of Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory conditions. Adv. Environ. Biol. 10: 282-288.
Dwi Sutanto K, El Salamouny S, Tufail M, Ghulam RKS, Sukirno M., Shepard MS, Saad AA. 2017. Evaluation of natural additives to enhance the persistence of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) under field conditions in Saudi Arabia. J. Econ. Entomol. 110: 924-930.
Seigler, D.S. 1998. Plant Secondary Metabolism. Kuwar Academic Press, Dordrecht, New York, pp. 711.
Wink M. 2010. Functions and biotechnology of plant secondary metabolites Annual Plant Reviews, vol. 39, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 417.
Maia MF, Moore SJ. 2011. Plant-based insect repellents: a review of their efficacy, development and testing. Malaria J. 10: 1-14.
Garcıa M, Gonzalez-Coloma A, Donadel OJ, Ardanaz CE, Tonn CE, Sosa ME. 2007. Insecticidal effects of Flourensia oolepis Blake (Asteraceae) essential oil. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 35: 181–187.
Qin W, Huang S, Chen LC, Peng SZ. 2010. Biological activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Piper sarmentosum R. (Piperaceae) and its chemical constituents on Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 96: 132–139.
Pichersky E, Gershenzon J. 2002. The formation and function of plant volatiles: perfumes for pollinator attraction and defense. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 5: 237-243.
Pitasawat B, Champakaew D, Choochote W, Jitpakdi A, Chaithong U, Kanjanapothi D, Rattanachanpichai E, Tippawangkosol P, Riyong D, Tuetun B, Chaiyasit D. 2007. Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: An alternative larvicide for mosquito control. Fitoterapia. 78: 205-210.
Choi WS, Park BS, Lee YH, Jang DY, Yoon HY, Lee SE. 2006. Fumigant toxicities of essential oils and monoterpenes against Lycoriella mali adults. Crop Protec. 25: 398-401.
Tang GW, Yang CJ, Xie LD. 2007. Extraction of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. by supercritical fluid CO2 and its contact toxicity to Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). J Pest. Sci. 80: 151–157.
Islam MS, Hasan MM, Xiong W, Zhang SC, Lei CL. 2009. Fumigant and repellent activities of essential oil from Coriandrum sativum (L.) (Apiaceae) against red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. Pest. Sci. 82: 171–177.
Gonzalez-Coloma A, Martın-Benito D, Mohamed N, GarcıaVallejo MC, Soria AC. 2006. Antifeedant effects and chemical composition of essential oils from different populations of Lavandula luisieri L. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 34: 609-616.
Nathan SS, Hisham A, Jayakumar G. 2008. Larvicidal and growth inhibition of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi by triterpenes from Dysoxylum malabaricum and Dysoxylum beddomei. Fitoterapia. 79: 106-111.
Isikber AA, Alma MH, Kanat M, Karci A. 2006. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from Laurus nobilis and Rosmarinus officinalis against all life stages of Tribolium confusum. Phytoparasitica. 34: 167-177.
Boulos L. 1999. Flora of Egypt. Volume One: (Azollaceae-Oxalidaceae); Al Hadara Publishing: Cairo, Egypt. ISBN 977-5429. 1: 5-15.
Rizk AM. 1986. The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Sci and Appl Res Centre, Univ Qatar, Qatar, pp. 455-534.
El-Defrawi, M.E., A. Toppozada, N. Mansour, M. Zeid, 1964. Toxicological studies on Egyptian cotton leafworm, Prodenia litura (F.). 1- Susceptibility of different larval instar to insecticides. J. Econ. Entomol., 57: 591-593.
Harborne JB. 1973. Phytochemical methods. A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. London, New York: Chapman and Hall Ltd. 49-188.
Hatem AE, Azazy AM, Salwa SM, Abd El-Samad SSM, Reda AMA. 2011. Toxicity and bioactivity of feeding cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on fresh leaves of selected weeds. J of Plant Protec and Patholo, Mansoura Univ. 2: 257 - 273.
El-Zoghby FA, Magda H, Gadelhak SG, El-Sabrout MA. 2011. Effects of Melilotus indica crude extract and cascade (IGR) on Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reproductive organs. Bull. entomol. Soc. Egypt. Econ. Series. 37: 121- 136.
Pavela R, Taisiya DC. 2004. Potential insecticidal activity of extracts from 18 species of medicinal plants on larvae of Spodoptera littoralis. Plant Protec. Sci. 40: 145-150.
Ahmed MAI, Vogel CFA, Matsumura F. 2015. Unique biochemical and molecular biological mechanism of synergistic actions of formamidine compounds on selected pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides on the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 120: 57–63.
Khedr MMA, Desuky WMH, El-Shakaa SMA, Khalil SIY. 2005. Toxicological and biochemical studies on the effect of some insect growth regulators on Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) larvae. Egypt. J. Agric. Res. 83: 539 - 561.
Do Nascimento A, Farias JRR, Bernardi D, Horikoshi RJ, Omoto C. 2016. Genetic basis of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance to the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron. Pest Manage. Sci. 72: 810-815.
Qu Z, Bendena WG, Tobe SS, Hui JHL. 2018. Juvenile hormone and sesquiterpenoids in arthropods: Biosynthesis, signaling, and role of MicroRNA. J. Steroid. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 184: 69-76.