2019 Volume 6 Issue 1

Overview of the Helminth Fauna of Slow Worms of Genus Anguis (Reptilia, Anguidae) in the Western Palearctic

Alexander A. Kirillov, Nadezhda Yu. Kirillova, Alexander B. Ruchin

The overview summarizes data on helminths of slowworms of genus Anguis inhabiting the Western Palearctic. The data was collected using all available literature for 180-year period and original data of the authors. The data contain information on 13 countries where slowworms have been studied. 21 parasite species are listed (2 trematodes, 1 cestoda, 17 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan), each with the location in the host, geographical localities, countries, prevalence, range of infection intensity and literature sources.  Most of helminths are «random» slowworms’ parasites. There are only 5 common parasites: Entomelas entomelas, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Oswaldocruzia lisnykiensis, Oxysomatium brevicaudatum and Neoxysomatium caucasicum, all of them nematodes and with direct life cycle. Entomelas entomelas, Oswaldocruzia filiformis and Oxysomatium brevicaudatum are found in most examined legless lizards.


Gvozdik V., Jandzik D., Lymberakis P., Ja-blonski D., Moravec J. 2010. Slow worm An-guis fragilis (Reptilia: Anguidae) as a species complex: Genetic structure reveals deep di-vergences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evo-lution. Vol. 55. Issue 2. P. 460–472.

Jablonski, D, Jandzik, D, Mikulicek, P, Dzukic, G, Ljubisavljevic, K, Tzankov, N, Jelic, D, Thanou, E, Moravec, J, Gvozdik, V. 2016. Contrasting evolutionary histories of the legless lizards slow worms (Anguis) shaped by the topography of the Balkan Pen-insula. BMC Evolutionary Biology 16: 99. DOI: 10.1186/s12862-016-0669-1.

Renet, J, Lucente, D, Delaugerre, M, Gerriet, O, Deso, G, Abbat-Tista, C, Cimmaruta, R. 2018. Discovery of an Italian slow worm (Anguis veronensis Pollini, 1818) population on a Western Mediterranean Island con-firmed by genetic analysis. Acta Herpetologi-ca. 13(2): 165-169. DOI: 10.13128/Acta_Herpetol-23290.

Gvozdik V., Benkovsky N., Crottini A., Bellati A., Moravec J., Romano A., Sacchi R., Jandzik D. 2013. An ancient lineage of slow worms, genus Anguis (Squamata: Anguidae), sur-vived in the Italian Peninsula. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Vol. 69. Issue 3. P. 1077–1092.

Koppitz, C. 2018. Are Anguis graeca (Bed-riaga, 1881) and Anguis cephallonica Wer-ner, 1894, sympatric in the lowlands of southern Laconia? Herpetozoa 30(3-4): 223-225.

Psonis, N, Antoniou, A, Karameta, E, Leache, AD, Kotsakiozi, P, Darriba, D, Kozlov, A, Stamatakis, A, Poursanidis, D, Kukushkin, O, Jablonski, D, Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J, Gherghel, I, Lymberakis, P, Poulakakis, N. 2018. Re-solving complex phylogeographic patterns in the Balkan Peninsula using closely related wall-lizard species as a model system. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 125: 100-115. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2018.03.021

Beebee T., Griffiths R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles: A natural history of the British herp-tofauna. London: Harper Collins Publish. pp. 272.

Szabo K, Voros J. 2014. Distribution and hy-bridization of Anguis fragilis and A. colchica in Hungary. Amphibia-Reptilia 35(1): 135-140. DOI: 10.1163/15685381-00002927

Jablonski D, Najbar B, Grochowalska R, Gvozdik V, Strzala T. 2017. Phylogeography and postglacial colonization of Central Eu-rope by Anguis fragilis and Anguis colchica. Amphibia-Reptilia 38(4): 562-569. DOI: 10.1163/15685381-00003133

Pedersen, IL, Jensen, JK, Toft, S. 2009. A method of obtaining dietary data for slow worms (Anguis fragilis) by means of non-harmful cooling and results from a Danish population. Journal of Natural History 43(15-16): 1011-1025. DOI: 10.1080/00222930802702464

Fish, A.C.M. 2016. Observations on felt and corrugated roof sheeting as materials for constructing coverboards to assess slow worm (Anguis fragilis) and common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) populations. Herpetological Bulletin 135: 4-6.

Tuniyev B.S., Lotiev K.Yu., Tuniyev S.B., Gabaev V.N., Kidov A.A. 2017. Amphibians and reptiles of South Ossetia. Nature Conser-vation Research 2(2): 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/0.24189/ncr.2017.002.

Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya I.E. 1985. Fish Parasites: A Guide to Study. Leningrad: Nauka. 121 p. (in Russian)

Anikanova V.S., Bugmyrin S.V. & Ieshko E.P. 2007. Methods for collection and study of helminths in small mammals. Petrozavodsk: Karelian Research Centre of RAS. 145 p. (in Russian)

Sharpilo V.P. 1976. Parasitic worms of the reptilian fauna of the USSR. Kyiv: Naukova Dumka. 376 p. (in Russian).

Dujardin F. 1845. Histoire naturelle des helminthes ou vers intestinaux. Paris. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret. 645 pp.

Muhling P. 1898. Die Helminthenfauna der Wirbeltiere Ostpreussens. Archiv für Naturgeschichte. 1: 1‒118.

Baylis H.A. 1928. Records of some parasite worms from British vertebrates. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Ser. 10(1). P. 329‒343.

Markowski S. 1933. Contributions a l’etude de la fauna helminthologique de la presqu’lle de Hel. Fragmenta Faunistica Musei Zoologi-ci Polonici. 2: 107‒111.

Moravec F. 1963. Prispevek k poznani hel-mintofauny nasich plazu. Spisy prirod-ovedecke fakulty J. E. Purkyně v Brne. 19: 353‒388.

Borkovcova M., Kopriva J. 2005. Parasitic helminths of reptiles (Reptilia) in South Mo-ravia (Czech Republic). Parasitology Re-search. 95 (1): 77–78.

Bertman M., Okulewicz A. 1984. Entomelas dujardini (Maupas, 1916) (Nematoda) u padalca ‒ Anguis fragilis L. Wiadomosci Parazytologiczne. 30: 341‒343. (In Polish)

Bertman M., Okulewicz A. 1987. Padalec ‒ Anguis fragilis L. i zaskroniec zwyczajny ‒ Natrix natrix (L.) nowymi krajowymi zywicielami Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782) Travassos 1917 (Nematoda). Wiadomosci Parazytologiczne. 33: 209‒212. (In Polish)

Lewin J. 1990. Parasitic worms in a slow-worm (Anguis fragilis L.) population from the Bieszczady Mountains (Poland). Acta Parasitologica Polonica. 35(3): 207‒215.

Jones R., Brown D.S., Harris E., Jones J., Sy-mondson W.O.C., Bruford M.W., Cable J. 2012. First record of Neoxysomatium brevicaudatum through the non-invasive sampling of Anguis fragilis: complementary morphological and molecular detection. Journal of Helminthology. 86: 125–129.

Markov G.S. 1952. Parasite fauna of reptiles of the Leningrad region. Scientific papers of the Leningrad State University 28(141): 217‒229 (in Russian).

Shimalov V.V., Shimalov V.T. 2000. Helminth fauna of snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes) in Belo-russian Polesye. Parasitology Research. 86: 340‒341.

Shimalov V.V., Shimalov V.T., Shimalov A.V. 2000. Helminth fauna of lizards (Reptilia, Sauria) in the southern part of Belarus. Para-sitology Research. 86: 343.

Shimalov V. V. 2010. Helminth fauna of rep-tiles in the Republic of Belarus. Parazitologi-ya. 44 (1): 22‒29 (in Russian).

Svitin R. 2017. Two new species of Os-waldocruzia (Nematoda, Molineidae) parasi-tising lizards in Ukraine. Zootaxa. 4263 (2): 358–368.

Shevchenko N.N. 1963. Helminth fauna of reptiles of the Seversky Donets Valley. Hel-minths of humans, animals and plants and ways to fight them. Moscow: Nauka, pp. 112–114 (in Russian).

Mihalca A.D., Gherman C., Ghira I., Cozma V. 2007. Helminth parasites of reptiles (Reptil-ia) in Romania. Parasitology Research. 101: 491–492. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-007-0486-y

Schad G.A., Kuntz R.E., Wells W.H. 1960. Nematode parasites from Turkish verte-brates: an annotated list. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 38: 949–963.

Dusen S., Ugurtas I.H., Altunel F.N. 2010a. Nematode parasites of the smooth snake, Coronella austriaca Laurenti, 1768 and the aesculapian snake, Zamenis longissimus (Laurenti, 1768) (Ophidia: Colubridae), col-lected from Northwestern Turkey. North-Western Journal of Zoology. 6 (1): 86–89.

Dusen S., Ugurtas I.H., Aydogdu A. 2010b. Nematode parasites of the two limbless lizards: Turkish worm lizard, Blanus strauchi (Bedriaga, 1884) (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae), and slow worm, Anguis fragilis Linnaeus 1758 (Squamata: Anguidae), from Turkey. Helminthologia. 47(3): 158–163.

Sumer N., Birlik S., Yildirimhan H.S. 2019. Morphological and molecular taxonomy of helminths of the slow worm Anguis fragilis (Linnaeus) (Squamata: Anguidae) from Tur-key. Biharean Biologist. Vol. 13 – in press.

Sharpilo V.P. 2003. Rare and locally distrib-uted palearctic species of the reptile parasitic worms: Oxysomatium caucasicum (Nema-toda, Cosmocertidae). Vestnik Zoologii. 37 (5): 69–72. (in Russian).

Sharpilo V.P. 1962. On the study of the hel-minth fauna of reptiles in the Transcaucasia. Collection of works of the Zoological Muse-um. 31: 63‒69 (in Russian).

Sharpilo V.P. 1974. A new member of the ge-nus Neoxysomatium Ballesteros Marquez, 1945 (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) a parasite of slow worms of the Caucasus. Parazitologiya. 8 (2): 112–114 (in Russian).

Kirillov A.A., Ruchin A.B., Fayzulin A.I. & Chihlyaev I.V. 2015. Helminths of reptiles of Mordovia: advance information. Proceedings of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve 14: 243‒255 (in Russian).

Kirillov A.A., Kirillova N. Yu. & Ruchin A.B. 2018. Helminth fauna of Anguis fragilis L. (Anguidae) of Smolny National Park. Pro-ceedings of the Mordovia State Nature Re-serve. 21: 279‒283 (in Russian).

Kirillov A.A., Kirillova N. Yu. 2018. Overview of helminths in reptiles of the National Park «Samarskaya Luka» (Russia). Nature Conser-vation Research. 3(Suppl. 1): 73–82. DOI: 10.24189/ncr.2018.049 (in Russian).

Kirillov A.A. 2000. Helminth fauna of reptiles of the Samara region. Proceedings of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 3: 324‒329. (in Russian)

Sharpilo V.P. 1964. Larval forms of nema-todes parasites of reptiles of the fauna of the Ukrainian SSR. Works of Ukrainian Scientific Society of Parasitologists. Kyiv: Naukova Dumka, pp. 112–124. (in Russian)

Shevchenko N.N., Belinisova L.K. 1964. About some new helminth species of reptiles of the Seversky Donets Valley in Kharkov re-gion. Questions of Genetics and Zoology. Kharkov: Kharkov University,.pp. 47–55. (in Russian)

Sargsyan N., Danielyan F., Arakelyan M. 2014. Seven new species of helminths for reptiles from Armenia. Acta Parasitologica. 59 (3): 442–447.

Rausch R.L. 1994. Family Mesocestoididae Fuhrmann, 1907. In: Khalil L.F., Jones A., Bray R.A. (eds.). Keys to the cestode para-sites of vertebrates. CAB International, Wall-ingford, pp. 309–314.

Skirnisson K., Jouet D., Ferte H., Nielsen O.K. 2016. Occurrence of Mesocestoides cani-slagopodis (Rudolphi, 1810) (Krabbe, 1865) in mammals and birds in Iceland and its mo-lecular discrimination within the Mesoces-toides species complex. Parasitology Re-search. 115 (7): 2597‒2607.

Lewin J. 1992a. Parasites of the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis L.) in Poland. Acta Parasitologica Polonica. 37: 19‒24.

Sharpilo V.P., Biserkov V., Kostadinova A., Behnke J.M., Kuzmin Y.I. 2001. Helminths of the sand lizard Lacerta agilis (Reptilia, Lacer-tidae), in the Palaearctic: faunal diversity and spatial patterns of variation in the composi-tion and structure of component communi-ties. Parasitology. 123: 389‒400.

Roca V., Ferragut M.V. 1989. Helmintofauna del lagarto verdinegro, Lacerta schreiberi Bedriaga, 1878 (Reptilia: Lacertidae) del Sistema Central (Espana). Revista iberica de parasitologia. 49: 291‒300. (In Spanish)

Yildirimhan H.S., Bursey C.R., Altunel F.N. 2011. Helminth parasites of the Balkan green lizard Lacerta trilineata Bedriaga 1886 from Bursa, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology. 35: 519–535.

Biserkov V., Kostadinova A. 1998. Intestinal helminth communities in the green lizard Lacerta viridis from Bulgaria. Journal of Helminthology. 72: 267‒271.

Birlik S., Yildirimhan H.S., Sumer N., Ilgaz C., Kumlutas Y., Guglu O., Durmus S.H. 2015. The helminth fauna of Apathya cappadocica (Werner, 1902) (Anatolian Lizard) (Squama-ta: Lacertidae) from Turkey. Helminthologia. 52 (4): 310–315.

Birlik S., Yildirimhan H.S., Sümer N., Kumlutas Y., Ilgaz C., Durmus S.H., Guclu O., Candan K. 2016. Helminth fauna of Lebanon lizard, Phoenicolacerta laevis (Gray, 1838) (Squamata: Lacertidae) from Southern Tur-key. Helminthologia. 53 (3): 262–269.

Gurelli G., Gocmen B., Cetin-Dogan T., Alpagut-Keskin N. 2007. First record of Mes-ocestoides spp. Vaillant, 1863. Tetrathyridia (Cestoidea: Cyclophyllidae) in Anatolian liz-ard, Anatololaceta danfordi (Gunther, 1876) in Turkey. North-Western Journal of Zoology. 3: 96‒106.

Ikromov E.K., Cho M.R. 2004. On new repre-sentatives of the helminth fauna of reptiles (Testudines and Sauria) in Uzbekistan. Jour-nal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 7: 13‒17.

Roca V., Lopez-Balaguer E., Hornero M.J. 1989. Helmintofauna de Podarcis hispanica (Steindachner, 1870) Podarcis bocager (Seoane, 1884) (Reptilia: Lacertidae) en el Cuadrante Noroaccidental de la Peninsula Iberica. Revista iberica de parasitologia. 49: 127‒135. (in Spanish)

Kirin D. 2002a. New data on the helminth fauna of Lacerta viridis Laurenti, 1768, and Podarcis muralis (Laurenti, 1768) (Reptilia: Lacertidae) in Bulgaria. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica. 54: 43‒48.

Roca V., Hornero M.J. 1994. Helminth in-fracommunities of Podarcis pityusensis and Podarcis lilfordi (Sauria: Lacertidae) from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean basin). Canadian Journal of Zoology. 72: 658‒664.

Roca V., Lluch J., Navarro P. 1986b. Con-tribucion al conocimiento de la helmintofau-na de los herpetos ibericos. V. Parasitos de Psammodromus algirus (L., 1758) Bouleng-er, 1887, Psammodromus hispanicus Fitz-inger, 1926 y Acanthodactylus erythrurus (Schinz, 1833) Mertens, 1925 (Reptilia: Lac-ertidae). Boletin de la Real Sociedad Espanola de Historia Natural. (Biol.). 81: 69‒78.

Roca V., Lluch J. 1988. L’helmintofaune des lacertidae (Reptilia) de la zone thermomediterraneenne de l’est de l’Espagne. Aspects ecologiques. Vie Milieu. 38: 201‒205. (in Spanish)

Markov G.S., Ivanov V.P., Nikulin V.P. & Chernobay V.F. 1962. Helminth fauna of rep-tiles of the Volga delta and Caspian steppes. Pr. of Astrakhan Reserve 6: 145‒172 (in Russian).

Biserkov V.Y. 1996. New records of platy-helminth parasites from snakes in Bulgaria. Comptes rendus de l'Académie bulgare des Sciences. 49: 73‒75.

Lewin J. 1992b. Parasites of Lacerta vivipara Jacquin, 1787 in Poland. Acta Parasitologica Polonica. 37: 79‒82.

Pojmanska T. Family Brachylaimidae Joyeux & Foley, 1930. In : Gibson D.I., Jones A. and Bray R.A. (eds.). Keys to the Trematoda. Vol. 1. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK and The Natural History Museum, London, 2002. pp. 544.

Galdon M.A., Roca V., Barbosa D., Carretero M.A. 2006. Intestinal helminth communities of Podarcis bocagei and Podarcis carbonelli (Sauria: Lacertidae) in NW Portugal. Helminthologia. 43: 37–41.

Hornero M.J., Roca V. 1992. Helmintofauna de Podarcis lilfordi (Gunther, 1874) (Sauria, Lacertidae) de los islotes de Menorca (Islas Baleares, Mediterraneo Occidental). Miscellania Zoológica. Vol. 16: 1–6. (in Spanish)

Incedogan S., Yildirimhan H.S., Bursey C.R. 2014. Helminth parasites of the ocellated skink, Chalcides ocellatus (Foskal, 1775) (Scincidae) from Turkey. Comparative Parasitology. 81: 260‒269.

Sudarikov V. E., Shigin A. A., Kurochkin Yu. V. et al. 2002. Metacercariae of trematode parasites of freshwater hydrobionts in Cen-tral Russia. Moscow: Nauka. 298 p. (in Russian).

Roca V., Lluch J., Navarro P. 1986a. Con-tribucion al conocimiento de la helmintofau-na de los herpetos ibericos. 1. Parasitos de Lacertidae: Lacerta lepida Daudin, 1802 y Podarcis hispanica Steindachner, 1870. Revista iberica de parasitologia. 46: 129‒136. (in Spanish)

Dezfuli B.S. 2000. Host-parasite interface be-tween Asellus aquaticus (Isopoda) and lar-vae of Acanthocephalus anguillae (Acantho-cephala). Folia parasitologica. 47 (2): 154‒156.

Vakarenko A. G. & Lisitsina I. I. 2001. Cystacanth of Acanthocephalus falcatus (Acanthocephala, Echinorhynchidae) from the New Intermediate Host Woodlouse Ligid-ium hypnorum (Isopoda, Ligiidae). Vestnik zoologii. 35 (6): 67–69 (in Russian)

Bertman, M. 1993. Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Trematoda) and Acantho-cephalus ranae (Schrank, 1788) (Acantho-cephala) in grass snake – Natrix natrix (L.). Wiadomosci Parazytologiczne. 39: 405–406 (In Polish)

Baker M. R. Revision of Entomelas Travas-sos, 1930 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) with a review of genera in the family. Systematic Parasitology. 1980. Vol. 1 (2). P. 83–90.

Moravec F. 1974. Description of the free-living males and females of Entomelas en-tomelas (Dujardin, 1845) (Nematoda: Rhab-diasidae). Scripta Facultatis Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Purkynianae Brunensis. 4: 97–100.

Anderson R.C. 2000. Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates. Their Development and Trans-mission. 2nd Edition. Wallingford, Oxon: CABI Publishing. 650 p.

Halajian A., Bursey C.R., Goldberg S.R., Mo-hammad Ali Gol S. 2013. Helminth Parasites of the European Glass Lizard, Pseudopus apodus (Squamata: Anguidae), and European Grass Snake, Natrix natrix (Serpentes: Colu-bridae), from Iran. Comparative Parasitology. 80 (1): 151–156.

Kuzmin Yu. 2013. Review of Rhabdiasidae (Nematoda) from the Holarctic. Zootaxa. 3639 (1): 1–76.

Chu T. 1936. Studies on the life history of Rhabdias fuscovenosa var. catanensis (Rizzo 1902). Journal of Parasitology. 22: 140–160.

Yildirimhan H.S., Bursey C.R., Goldberg S. R. 2007. Helminth parasites of the grass snake Natrix natrix and the dice snake Natrix tessel-lata (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Turkey. Comparative Parasitology. 74 (2): 343–354.

Bakiev A., Kirillov A., Mebert K. 2011. Diet and parasitic helminths of Dice snakes from the Volga Basin, Russia. Mertensiella. 18: 325‒329.

Ruchin A.B. & Kirillov A.A. 2012. The hel-minthofauna of the grass snake Natrix natrix L. from Republic of Mordovia. Biological Sciences of Kazakhstan. 4: 344‒348 (in Rus-sian)

Reshetnikov A.N., Sokolov S.G., Chikhlyaev I.V., Faizulin A.I., Kirillov A.A., Kuzovenko A.E., Protasova E.N., Skomorokhov M.O. 2013. Direct and indirect interactions be-tween an invasive Alien Fish (Perccottus glenii) and two native semi-aquatic snakes. Copeia. 1: 103–110.

Yossefi M.R., Nikzad R., Nikzad M., Mousa-pour A., Ramazanpour S., Rahimi M.T. 2014. High helmintic infection of the European grass snake Natrix natrix and the dice snake Natrix tessellata (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Iran. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 4 (Supp. 1): S263‒S267.

Shevchenko, N.N., Barabashova, V.N. 1958. Helminth fauna of Lacerta agilis L. and Vi-pera berus L. in the Kharkov area. Works on Helmintology. P. 389‒394. (in Russian)

Hendrikx W.M.L. 1983. Observations on the routes of infection of Oswaldocruzia fili-formis (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) in Amphibia. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde. 69 (1): 119‒126.

Ben Slimane B., Durette-Desset M.C. 1991. Quatre nouvelles especes du genre Oswaldocruzia Travassos, 1917 (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) parasites d'Amphibiens d' Equateur. Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 100: 113–136.

Ben Slimane B., Durette-Desset M.C. 1996. Two new Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda, Tri-chostrongyIina, Molineoidea) parasites of amphibians from Cameroon. Helminthologia. 33: 143–147.

Ben Slimane B., Durette-Desset M.C. 1997. Revision du genru Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda, Trichostrongylida, Molineoidea) en zone nearctique avec description de cinq nouvelles espe`ces. Zoosystema. 19: 61–79.

Durette-Desset M.C., Batcharov A., Ben Slimane B., Chabaud A.G. 1993. Some Os-waldocruzia (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloi-dea) parasites of Amphibia in Bulgaria. Re-description of Oswaldocruzia bialata (Molin, 1860). Helminthologia. 30 (2): 99–104.

Ben Slimane B., Durette-Desset M.C., Chabaud A.G. 1995a. Phenomenes de speciation chez les Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea) parasites de Lezards de Guadeloupe. Parasite. 2: 373–383.

Ben Slimane B., Lluch J., Durette-Desset M.C. 1995b. Two new species of the genus Os-waldocruzia Тravassos, 1917 (Nematode: Trichostrongylina: Molineidae) parasitizing Spanish amphibians. Research and Review in Parasitology. 55 (4): 209–215.

Ben Slimane B., Chabaud A.G., Durette-Desset M.C. 1996a. Les Nematodes Trichostrongylina parasites d’Amphibiens et de Reptiles: problemes taxonomiques, phyletigues et biogeographigues. Systematic parasitology. 35 (3): 179–206.

Ben Slimane B., Guerero R., Durette-Desset M.C. 1996b. Oswaldocruzia venezuelensis n.sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongyloidea, Molineoidea) a parasite of Bufo marinus from Venezuela. Folia Parasitologica. 43 (4): 297–300.

Svitin R. & Gorobchishyn V. 2015. Postcycle parasitism of nematodes of the genus Os-waldocruzia Travassos, 1917 parasitizing several species of snakes from the territory of Ukraine. Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko na-tional university of Kyiv 1 (18): 68‒70 (in Ukrainian)

Okulewicz A. 1976. Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782) Travassos 1917 ‒ Nowy paso-zyt jaszczurki zwinki (Lacerta agilis L.). Wiadomosci Parazytologiczne. 12: 297‒301. (in Polish)

Marconcini A., Triantafillu G. 1970. Note helmintologiche sulla fanua selvatica in Ita-lia. Annali della Facolta di Medicina Veteri-naria di Pisa. 22: 217–229. (in Italian)

Roca V., Jorge F., Ilgaz C., Kumlutas Y., Dur-mus S.H., Carretero M.H. 2016. Intestinal parasites of unisexual and bisexual lizards Darevskia spp. (Lacertidae) from Northeast-ern Anatolia. Helminthologia. 53 (3): 298–303.

Sanchis V., Roig J.M., Carretero M.A., Roca V., Llorente G.A. 2000. Host-parasite rela-tionships of Zootoca vivipara (Sauria: Lacer-tidae) in the Pyrenees (North Spain). Folia Parasitologica. 47: 118‒122.

Kirin D. 2002b. New records of the hel-minth fauna from grass snake Natrix natrix L., 1758 and dice snake Natrix tessellata Lau-renti, 1768 (Colubridae: Reptilia) in South Bulgaria. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica. 54: 49‒53.

Markov G.S., Mozgovoi A.A. 1969. Causes of the low level of helminth infection in Vi-pera berus in the northern European part of its distribution area. Proceedings of the Hel-minthological Laboratory of Academy of Sci-ences of the USSR. 20: 91‒96 (in Russian)

Novokhatskaya O.V. 2008. On the occur-rence of the nematode Oswaldocruzia fili-formis (Strongylida: Molineidae) in Karelia. Parazitologiya. 42: 204‒209. (in Russian)

Kirillov A.A., Kirillova N.Yu. 2016. Analy-sis of the reproductive structure of the hemi-population of the Cosmocerca ornata (Dujar-din, 1845) (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) in marsh frogs of different ages. Inland Water Biology. 9 (3): 310–318.

Hoberg E.P., Polley L., Jenkins E.J., Kutz S.J., Veitch A.M., Elkin B.T. 2008. Integrated approaches and empirical models for inves-tigation of parasitic diseases in northern wildlife. Emerging Infectious Diseases Jour-nal. 14: 10‒17.

Kafle P., Sullivan J., Verocai G.G., Kutz S.J. 2017. Experimental Life-Cycle of Varestron-gylus eleguneniensis (Nematoda: Proto-strongylidae) in a Captive Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and a Muskox (Ovibos moschatus moschatus). Journal of Parasitol-ogy. 103 (5): 584‒587. doi: 10.1645/17-19.

Roepstorff A., Nansen P. 1998. Epidemi-ology, diagnosis, and control of helminth parasites of swine. FAO of the UN, Rome. pp. 161.

Biserkov V.Y. 1995. New records of nem-atodes and acanthocephalans from snakes in Bulgaria. Comptes rendus de l'Academie bul-gare des sciences: sciences mathematiques et naturelles. 48 (11-12): 87–89.

Bogdanov O.P., Lutta A.S., Markov G.S., Ryzhikov K.M. 1969. New data about para-site fauna of Ancystrodon halys (Reptilia, Crotalidae). Zoological Journal. 68: 179‒183. (in Russian)

Santos X., Martinez-Freiria F., Pleguezue-los J.M., Roca V. 2006. First helminthological data on Iberian vipers: Helminth communi-ties and host-parasite relationships. Acta Parasitologica. 51: 130‒135.

Cordero del Campillo M., Castanon-Ordonez L., Reguera-Feo A. 1994. Indice-catalogo de zooparasitos ibericos. 2 edicion. Secretariado de Publicaciones, Universidad de Leon. Leon. 650 pp.

Markov G.S., Lukina G.P., Markova L.I. & Mozgina A.A. 1964. To the parasitic fauna of reptiles of the North Caucasus. Memoirs of Volgograd State Pedagogical University 16: 99–105. (in Russian)

Entomology and Applied Science Letters is an international peer reviewed publication which publishes scientific research & review articles related to insects that contain information of interest to a wider audience, e.g. papers bearing on the theoretical, genetic, agricultural, medical and biodiversity issues. Emphasis is also placed on the selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance. Papers on non-insect groups are no longer accepted. In addition to full-length research articles and reviews, the journal publishes interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, and Letters to the Editor. The journal publishes reports on all phases of medical entomology and medical acarology, including the systematics and biology of insects, acarines, and other arthropods of public health and veterinary significance.
Issue 2 Volume 7 - 2020
Call for Papers
Entomology and Applied Science Letters supports the submission of entomological papers that contain information of interest to a wider reader groups e. g. papers bearing on taxonomy, phylogeny, biodiversity, ecology, systematic, agriculture, morphology. The selection of comprehensive, revisionary or integrated systematics studies of broader biological or zoogeographical relevance is also important. Distinguished entomologists drawn from different parts of the world serve as honorary members of the Editorial Board. The journal encompasses all the varied aspects of entomological research. This has become the need felt in scientific research due to the emphasis on intra-, inter-, and multi-disciplinary approach.